Research Papers

Axial Loss Development in Low Pressure Turbine Cascades

[+] Author and Article Information
Bastian Muth

Research Assistant
e-mail: bastian.muth@unibw.de

Reinhard Niehuis

e-mail: reinhard.niehuis@unibw.de
Institute of Jet Propulsion,
Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace,
University of the German Federal Armed Forces,
Munich D-85577, Neubiberg, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received July 3, 2012; final manuscript received August 16, 2012; published online June 6, 2013. Assoc. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(4), 041024 (Jun 06, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1118; doi: 10.1115/1.4007580 History: Received July 03, 2012; Revised August 16, 2012; Accepted August 17, 2012

The objective of this work presented in this paper is to study the performance of low-pressure turbines in detail by extensive numerical simulations. The numerical flow simulations were conducted using the general purpose code ANSYS CFX. Particular attention is focused on the loss development in the axial direction within the flow passage of the cascade. It is shown that modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are able to break down the integral loss of the turbine profile into its components, depending on attached and separated flow areas. In addition, the numerical results allow one to show the composition of the loss depending on the Reynolds number. The method of the analysis of axial loss development presented here allows for a much more comprehensive investigation and evaluation of the quality of the numerical results. For this reason, the paper also demonstrates the capability of this method to quantify the influence of the axial velocity density ratio, the inflow turbulence level, the inflow angle, and the Reynolds number on the loss configuration and the flow angle of the cascade as well as a comparison of steady state and transient results. The validation data of this low pressure turbine (LPT) cascade have been obtained at the High Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel of the Institute of Jet Propulsion. For this purpose, experiments were conducted within the range of Re2th = 40,000 to 400,000. To gather data at realistic engine operation conditions, the wind tunnel allows for an independent variation of Reynolds and Mach number. The experimental results presented herein contain detailed pressure measurements as well as measurements with 3D hot-wire anemometry. However, this paper shows only integral values of the experimental as well as the numerical results to protect the proprietary nature of the LPT design.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Steffens, K., and Fritsch, G., 1999, “Enabling Low Spool Technologies for Future High-Bypass Ratio Engines,” 14th International Symposium on Airbreathing Engines, Florence, Italy, September 5–10, Paper No. ISABE 99-721.
Sturm, W., and Fottner, L., 1985, “The High-Speed Cascade Wind Tunnel of the German Armed Forces Munich,” 8th Symposium on Measuring Techniques for Transonic and Supersonic Flows in Cascades and Turbomachines, Genoa, October 24–25.
Stadtmüller, P., Fottner, L., and Fiala, A., 2000, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Wake-Induced Transition on a Highly Loaded LP Turbine at Low Reynolds Numbers,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0269.
Menter, F. R., Langtry, R. B., Likki, S. R., Suzen, Y. B., Huang, P. G., and Völker, S., 2004, “A Correlation-Based Transition Model Using Local Variables: Part I—Model Formulation,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vienna, Austria, June 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2004-53452. [CrossRef]
Langtry, R. B., Menter, F. R., Likki, S. R., Suzen, Y. B., Huang, P. G., and Völker, S., 2004, “A Correlation-Based Transition Model Using Local Variables: Part II—Test Cases and Industrial Applications,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vienna, Austria, June 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2004-53454. [CrossRef]
Menter, R. R., Kurtz, M., and Langtry, R., 2003, “Ten Years of Industrial Experience With the SST Turbulence Model,” Proc. 4th. Int. Symp. on Turbulence, Heat and Mass Transfer, Antalya, Turkey, October 12–17, K.Hanjalić, ed., Begell House, New York.
Kožulović, D., and Röber, T., 2006, “Contribution of Turbulence Equation Terms to the Shear Stress Balance,” Proc. 4th ICCFD, Gent, The Netherlands.
Langtry, R. B., and Menter, F. R., 2005, “Transition Modelling for General CFD Applications in Aeronautics,” AIAA Paper No. 2005-522. [CrossRef]
Abu-Ghannam, B. J., and Shaw, R., 1980, “Natural Transition of Boundary Layers—The Effects of Pressure Gradient and Flow History,” J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 22(5), pp. 213–228. [CrossRef]
Suzen, Z. B., Xiong, G., and Huang, P. G., 2000, “Predictions of Transitional Flows in Low-Pressure Turbines Using an Intermittency Transport Equation,” AIAA Fluids 2000 Conference, Denver, CO, June 19–22, AIAA Paper No. 2000-2654. [CrossRef]
Mayle, R. E., 1991, “The Role of Laminar-Turbulent Transition in Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Turbo Expo, Orlando, FL, June 3–6, ASME Paper No. 91-GT-261.
Muth, B., Schwarze, M., Niehuis, R., and Franke, M., 2009, “Investigation of CFD Prediction Capabilities for Low Reynolds Turbine Aerodynamics,” ASME Turbo Expo, Orlando, FL, June 8–12, ASME Paper No. GT2009-59306. [CrossRef]
Muth, B., 2012, “Einfluss kleiner Reynolds-Zahlen auf das Verlust- und Umlenkverhalten von Niederdruckturbinengittern,” Ph.D. thesis, University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace, Munich, Germany.
Martinstetter, M., Schwarze, M., Niehuis, R., and Hübner, N., 2008, “Influence of Inflow Turbulence on Loss Behavior of Highly Loaded LPT Cascades,” 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno-Tahoe, NV, January 7–10, AIAA Paper No. 2008-82. [CrossRef]
Kiock, R., Laskowski, G., and Hoheisel, H., 1982, “Die Erzeugung höherer Turbulenzgrade in der Meßstrecke des Hochgeschwindigkeits-Gitterwindkanals, Braunschweig, zur Simulation turbomaschinenähnlicher Bedingungen,” Institut für Entwurfsaerodynamik, DFVLR Braunschweig, Paper No. FB-82-25.
Banieghbal, M., Curtis, E., Denton, J., Hodson, H., Huntsman, I., Schulte, V., Harvey, N., and Steele, A., 1995, “Wake Passing in LP Turbine Blades,” 85th Symposium on Loss Mechanisms and Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines (AGARD CP-571), Derby, UK, May 8–12.
Martinstetter, M., 2010, “Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Aerodynamik hoch belasteter Niederdruckturbinen-Beschaufelungen,” Ph.D. Thesis, University of the German Federal Armed Forces, Department of Aeronautics and Aerospace, Munich, Germany.
Coull, J., Thomas, R., and Hodson, H., 2008, “Velocity Distributions for Low Pressure Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50589. [CrossRef]
Curtis, E., Hodson, H., Banieghbal, M., Howell, R., and Harvey, N., 1997, “Development of Blade Profiles for Low-Pressure Turbine Applications,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 531–538. [CrossRef]
Sharma, O., Wells, R., Schlinker, R. H., and Bailey, D., 1982, “Boundary Layer Development on Turbine Suction Surfaces,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 698–706. [CrossRef]
Baines, W., and Peterson, E., 1951, “An Investigation of Flow Through Screens,” Trans. ASME, 73, pp. 467–480.
Ladwig, M., and Fottner, L., 1993, “Experimental Investigations of the Influence of Incoming Wakes on the Losses of a Linear Turbine Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 93-GT-394.
Schulte, V., and Hodson, H., 1994, “Wake-Separation Bubble Interaction in Low Pressure Turbines,” AIAA/SAE/ASME/ASEE 30th Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, Indianapolis, IN, June 27–29, AIAA Paper No. 94-2931. [CrossRef]
Stieger, R., and Hodson, H., 2003, “The Transition Mechanism of Highly-Loaded LP Turbine Blades,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo, Power for Land, Sea and Air, Atlanta, GA, June 16–19, ASME Paper No. GT2003-38304. [CrossRef]
Pfeil, H., Herbst, R., and Schröder, T., 1983, “Investigation of the Laminar-Turbulent Transition of Boundary Layers Disturbed by Wakes,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 105, pp. 130–137. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Computational grid and boundary conditions [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Design point (Re = 60,000)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Study of mesh independence

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Influence of the axial velocity density ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Reynolds number lapse rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Flow angle and loss development (Re = 400,000)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Loss breakdown approach

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Loss breakdown, absolute values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Loss breakdown, percental values

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Flow angle and loss development (Re = 60,000) for both turbulence cases

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Axial development of the integral turbulence intensity level

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of the inflow angle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

CFD domain with the moving bar

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Design point unsteady (Re = 60,000)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Periodically unsteady inflow angle and velocity (CFD)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Space-time plot pressure surface (Re = 60,000)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Space-time plot suction surface (Re = 60,000)



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In