Research Papers

The Influence of Tip Clearance Momentum Flux on Stall Inception in a High-Speed Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Scott C. Morris

e-mail: s.morris@nd.edu
Hessert Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556

Jingyi Chen

Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Chinese Academy of Science,
Beijing 100190, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received December 23, 2011; final manuscript received March 8, 2012; published online June 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(5), 051005 (Jun 26, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1263; doi: 10.1115/1.4007800 History: Received December 23, 2011; Revised March 08, 2012

Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to investigate tip-leakage flow and its relationship to stall in a transonic axial compressor. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) results were used to identify the existence of an interface between the approach flow and the tip-leakage flow. The experiments used a surface-streaking visualization method to identify the time-averaged location of this interface as a line of zero axial shear stress at the casing. The axial position of this line, denoted xzs, moved upstream with decreasing flow coefficient in both the experiments and computations. The line was consistently located at the rotor leading edge plane at the stalling flow coefficient, regardless of inflow boundary condition. These results were successfully modeled using a control volume approach that balanced the reverse axial momentum flux of the tip-leakage flow with the momentum flux of the approach fluid. Nonuniform tip clearance measurements demonstrated that movement of the interface upstream of the rotor leading edge plane leads to the generation of short length scale rotating disturbances. Therefore, stall was interpreted as a critical point in the momentum flux balance of the approach flow and the reverse axial momentum flux of the tip-leakage flow.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of blade-relative flow features. Darkened line represents the approach flow/tip-leakage flow interface.

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Fig. 2

Meridional section of the Notre Dame Transonic Axial Compressor Stage 104

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Fig. 3

Schematic of flow visualization setup with optical window in rotor casing

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Fig. 4

Simulation grid for ND-TAC with tip and hub details

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Fig. 5

Total pressure ratio as a function of flow coefficient

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Fig. 6

Axial-radial slices of entropy

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Fig. 7

Entropy and axial shear contours for operating points A and B

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Fig. 8

Comparison of a surface streaking realization with numerically constructed casing surface streamlines. Inflow is left to right. The rotor leading edge plane is at x/Cax = 0 and the rotor trailing edge plane is at x/Cax = 1.

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Fig. 9

Pitch-averaged axial shear stress as a function of axial location from CFD simulation. Positive axial shear stress is in the through-flow direction. The rotor leading edge plane is located at x/Cax = 0.

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Fig. 10

Axial location of the region of zero axial shear (xzs) as a function of Φ

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Fig. 11

Schematic of free-stream and counter-flow wall jet interaction

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Fig. 12

Inlet velocity profile and rotor total pressure ratio for radial inlet distortion cases

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Fig. 13

(a) Pressure rise and (b) xzs as a function of flow coefficient for uniform inlet, tip-weak, and hub-weak distortion

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Fig. 14

Circumferential variation in (a) rotor offset, (b) flow coefficient, and (c) xzs due to rotor offset

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Fig. 15

Contours of χ(θ,t) during stall inception



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