Research Papers

Adiabatic and Overall Effectiveness for the Showerhead Film Cooling of a Turbine Vane

[+] Author and Article Information
Marc L. Nathan

e-mail: Marc.Nathan@utexas.edu

Thomas E. Dyson

e-mail: tedyson@gmail.com

David G. Bogard

e-mail: dbogard@mail.utexas.edu
The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712

Sean D. Bradshaw

Pratt & Whitney,
East Hartford, CT 06108
e-mail: sean.bradshaw@pw.utc.com

1Currently at Cameron International, Houston, TX 77027.

2Currently at GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY 12309.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received February 15, 2013; final manuscript received March 17, 2013; published online September 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 136(3), 031005 (Sep 26, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1023; doi: 10.1115/1.4024680 History: Received February 15, 2013; Revised March 17, 2013

There have been a number of previous studies of the adiabatic film effectiveness for the showerhead region of a turbine vane, but no previous studies of the overall cooling effectiveness. The overall cooling effectiveness is a measure of the external surface temperature relative to the mainstream temperature and the inlet coolant temperature, and consequently is a direct measure of how effectively the surface is cooled. This can be determined experimentally when the model is constructed so that the Biot number is similar to that of engine components, and the internal cooling is designed so that the ratio of the external to internal heat transfer coefficient is matched to that of the engine. In this study, the overall effectiveness was experimentally measured on a model turbine vane constructed of a material to match Bi for engine conditions. The model incorporated an internal impingement cooling configuration. The cooling design consisted of a showerhead composed of five rows of holes with one additional row on both pressure and suction sides of the vane. An identical model was also constructed out of low conductivity foam to measure adiabatic film effectiveness. Of particular interest in this study was to use the overall cooling effectiveness measurements to identify local hot spots which might lead to failure of the vane. Furthermore, the experimental measurements provided an important database for evaluation of computational fluid dynamics simulations of the conjugate heat transfer effects that occur in the showerhead region. Continuous improvement in both measures of performance was demonstrated with increasing momentum flux ratio.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Mick, W. J., and Mayle, R. E., 1988, “Stagnation Film Cooling and Heat Transfer, Including Its Effect Within the Hole Pattern,” ASME J. Turbomach., 110, pp. 66–72. [CrossRef]
Mehendale, A. B., and Han, J. C., 1992, “Influence of High Mainstream Turbulence on Leading Edge Film Cooling Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 707–715. [CrossRef]
Polanka, M. D., Witteveld, V. C., and Bogard, D. G., 1999, “Film Cooling Effectiveness in the Showerhead Region of a Gas Turbine Vane—Part I: Stagnation Region and Near Pressure Side,” ASME Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, IN, June 7–10, ASME Paper No. 99-GT-048.
Witteveld, V. C., Polanka, M. D., and Bogard, D. G., 1999, “Film Cooling Effectiveness in the Showerhead Region of a Gas Turbine Vane—Part II: Stagnation Region and Near Suction Side,” ASME Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, IN, June 7–10, ASME Paper No. 99-GT-049.
Cutbirth, J. M., and Bogard, D. G., 2002, “Thermal Field and Flow Visualization Within the Stagnation Region of a Film Cooled Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 200–206. [CrossRef]
Yuki, U. M., Bogard, D. G., and Cutbirth, J. M., 1998, “Effect of Coolant Injection Heat Transfer for a Simulated Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge,” ASME Turbo Expo, Stockholm, Sweden, June 1–4, ASME Paper No. 98-GT-431.
Johnston, C. A., Bogard, D. G., and McWaters, M. A., 1999, “Highly Turbulent Mainstream Effects on Film Cooling of a Simulated Airfoil Leading Edge,” ASME Turbo Expo, Indianapolis, IN, June 7–10, ASME Paper No. 99-GT-261.
Wagner, G., Kotulla, M., Ott, P., Weigand, B., and von Wolfersdorf, J., 2005, “The Transient Liquid Crystal Technique: Influence of Surface Curvature and Finite Wall Thickness,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 175–182. [CrossRef]
Wagner, G., Schneider, E., von Wolfersdorf, J., Ott, P., and Weigand, B., 2007, “Method for Analysis of Showerhead Film Cooling Experiments on Highly Curved Surfaces,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 31, pp. 381–389. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., Bogard, D. G., and Cunha, F., 2004, “Adiabatic and Overall Effectiveness for a Film Cooled Blade,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vienna, Austria, June 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2004-53998. [CrossRef]
Nirmalan, N. V., and Hylton, L. D., 1990, “An Experimental Study of Turbine Vane Heat Transfer With Leading Edge and Downstream Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 477–487. [CrossRef]
Dees, J. E., Bogard, D. G., Ledezma, G. A., Laskowski, G. M., and Tolpadi, A. K., 2012, “Experimental Measurements and Computational Predictions for an Internally Cooled Simulated Turbine Vane With 90 Degree Rib Turbulators,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(6), p. 061003. [CrossRef]
Dees, J. E., Bogard, D. G., Ledezma, G. A., and Laskowski, G. M., 2011, “Overall and Adiabatic Effectiveness Values on a Scaled Up, Simulated Gas Turbine Vane—Part I: Experimental Measurements,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-46621. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2011, “Measurements of Adiabatic Film and Overall Cooling Effectiveness on a Turbine Vane Pressure Side With a Trench,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-46703. [CrossRef]
Hylton, L. D., Milhec, M. S., Turner, E. R., Nealy, D. A., and York, R. E., 1983, “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surface of Turbine Vanes,”, NASA, Contractor Report No. 168015.
Pichon, Y., 2009, “Turbulence Field Measurements for the Large Windtunnel,” The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, TTCRL Internal Report.
Bunker, R. S., 2009, “The Effects of Manufacturing Tolerances on Gas Turbine Cooling,” J. Turbomach., 131, p. 041018. [CrossRef]
Special Materials Corporation, 2004, “Inconel Alloy X-750,” Product Specifications No. SMC-067.
Moffat, R. J., 1985, “Using Uncertainty Analysis in the Planning of an Experiment,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 107, pp. 173–178. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

TTCRL wind tunnel test section schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Measured pressure distribution compared to the predicted infinite cascade of Dees et al. [12]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Coolant flow-path diagram

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Test vane schematic with close-up of showerhead region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematic view depicting the viewing areas for the cameras

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Contours of η for (a) ISH* = 0.76 (b) ISH* = 1.74 and (c) ISH* = 2.92 (d) ISH* = 4.67 and (e) ISH* = 6.73

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Detailed view of η contours for (a) ISH* = 0.76 (b) ISH* = 2.92 and (c) ISH* = 6.73 pointing out important features

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

η¯ for all measured momentum flux ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contours of η for (a) ISH* = 0.76 (b) ISH* = 1.72 and (c) ISH* = 2.99 (d) ISH* = 4.64 and (e) ISH* = 6.70

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Contours of (a) η, ISH* = 2.92 and (b) ϕ, ISH* = 2.99 with highlighted zones of corresponding low performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

φ¯ for all measured momentum flux ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison of η¯ and φ¯ at ISH* = 0.8, 3.0 and 6.7

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Measured values of h0 for a smooth C3X vane from Dees et al. [12]



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In