Research Papers

Detailed Heat Transfer Distributions of Narrow Impingement Channels for Cast-In Turbine Airfoils

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexandros Terzis

Group of Thermal Turbomachinery (GTT),
École Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL),
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland
e-mail: alexandros.terzis@me.com

Peter Ott

Group of Thermal Turbomachinery (GTT),
École Polytechnique Fédérale
de Lausanne (EPFL),
Lausanne CH-1015, Switzerland

Jens von Wolfersdorf, Bernhard Weigand

Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics (ITLR),
University of Stuttgart,
Stuttgart D-70569, Germany

Magali Cochet

Alstom Power,
Baden CH-5401, Switzerland

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 7, 2013; final manuscript received May 5, 2014; published online June 3, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Ardeshir Riahi.

J. Turbomach 136(9), 091011 (Jun 03, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1228; doi: 10.1115/1.4027679 History: Received October 07, 2013; Revised May 05, 2014

The current capabilities of the foundry industry allow the production of integrally cast turbine airfoils. Impingement cooling effectiveness can be then further increased due to the manufacturing feasibility of narrow impingement cavities in a double-wall configuration. This study examines experimentally, using the transient liquid crystal technique, the cooling performance of narrow cavities consisting of a single row of five impingement holes. Heat transfer coefficient distributions are obtained for all channel interior surfaces over a range of engine realistic Reynolds numbers varying between 10,900 and 85,900. Effects of streamwise jet-to-jet spacing (X/D), channel width (Y/D), jet-to-target plate distance (Z/D), and jet offset position (Δy∕D) from the channel centerline are investigated composing a test matrix of 22 different geometries. Additionally, the target plate and sidewalls heat transfer rates are successfully correlated within the experimental uncertainties providing an empirical heat transfer model for narrow impingement channels. The results indicate similarities with multijet impingement configurations; however, the achievable heat transfer level is about 20% lower compared to periodic multijet impingement correlations found in open literature.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Horlock, J. H., Watson, D. T., and Jones, T. V., 2001, “Limitations on Gas Turbine Performance Imposed by Large Turbine Cooling Flows,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 123(3), pp. 487–494. [CrossRef]
Bunker, R. S., 2007, “Gas Turbine Heat Transfer: Ten Remaining Hot Gas Path Challenges,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(2), pp. 193–201. [CrossRef]
Lutum, E., Semmler, K., and von Wolfersdorf, J., 2002, “Cooled Blade for a Gas Turbine,” US Patent 6,379,118 B2.
Chyu, M. K., and Alvin, M. A., 2010, “Turbine Airfoil Aerothermal Characteristics in Future Coal–Gas-Based Power Generation Systems,” Heat Transfer Res., 41(7), pp. 737–752. [CrossRef]
Bunker, R. S., Bailey, J. C., Lee, C.-P., and Stevens, C. W., 2004, “In-Wall Network (Mesh) Cooling Augmentation of Gas Turbine Airfoils,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-54260. [CrossRef]
Ligrani, P., 2013, “Heat Transfer Augmentation Technologies for Internal Cooling of Turbine Components of Gas Turbine Engines,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2013(3), pp. 1–32. [CrossRef]
Gillespie, D. R. H., Wang, Z., Ireland, P. T., and Kohler, S. T., 1998, “Full Surface Local Heat Transfer Coefficient Measurements in a Model of an Integrally Cast Impingement Cooling Geometry,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(1), pp. 92–99. [CrossRef]
Chambers, A. C., Gillespie, D. R. H., Ireland, P. T., and Dailey, G. M., 2005, “The Effect of Initial Cross Flow on the Cooling Performance of a Narrow Impingement Channel,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 127(4), pp. 358–365. [CrossRef]
Terzis, A., Wagner, G., von Wolfersdorf, J., Ott, P., and Weigand, B., 2014, “Effect of Hole Staggering on The Cooling Performance of Narrow Impingement Channels Using The Transient Liquid Crystal Technique,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 136(7), p. 071701. [CrossRef]
Weigand, B., and Spring, S., 2011, “Multiple Jet Impingement—A Review,” Heat Transfer Res., 42(2), pp. 101–142. [CrossRef]
Chambers, A. C., Gillespie, D. R. H., Ireland, P. T., and Kingston, R., 2010, “Enhancement of Impingement Cooling in a High Cross Flow Channel Using Shaped Impingement Cooling Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(2), p. 021001. [CrossRef]
Uysal, U., Li, P. W., Chyu, M. K., and Cunha, F. J., 2006, “Heat Transfer on Internal Surfaces of a Duct Subjected to Impingement of a Jet Array With Varying Jet Hole-Size and Spacing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 128(1), pp. 158–165. [CrossRef]
Miller, N., Siw, S. C., Chyu, M. K., and Alvin, M. A., 2013, “Effects of Jet Diameter and Surface Roughness on Internal Cooling With Single Array of Jets,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95400. [CrossRef]
Ricklick, M., Kapat, J. S., and Heidmann, J., 2010, “Sidewall Effects on Heat Transfer Coefficient in a Narrow Impingement Channel,” J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer, 24(1), pp. 123–132. [CrossRef]
Lamont, J. A., Ekkad, S. V., and Alvin, M. A., 2012, “Effects of Rotation on Heat Transfer for a Single Row Jet Impingement Array With Crossflow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 134(8), p. 082202. [CrossRef]
Stoakes, P., and Ekkad, S. V., 2011, “Optimized Impingement Configurations for Double Wall Cooling Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46143. [CrossRef]
Fechter, S., Terzis, A., Ott, P., Weigand, B., von Wolfersdorf, J., and Cochet, M., 2013, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Narrow Impingement Cooling Channels,” Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 7(9), pp. 1208–1219. [CrossRef]
Xing, Y., Spring, S., and Weigand, B., 2010, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Characteristics of Inline and Staggered Arrays of Impinging Jets,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 132(9), p. 092201. [CrossRef]
Park, J., Goodro, M., Ligrani, P., Fox, M., and Moon, H.-K., 2007, “Separate Effects of Mach Number and Reynolds Number on Jet Array Impingement Heat Transfer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(2), pp. 269–280. [CrossRef]
Poser, R., and von Wolfersdorf, J., 2011, “Liquid Crystal Thermography for Transient Heat Transfer Measurements in Complex Internal Cooling Systems,” Heat Transfer Res., 42(2), pp. 181–197. [CrossRef]
Terzis, A., von Wolfersdorf, J., Weigand, B., and Ott, P., 2012, “Thermocouple Thermal Inertia Effects on Impingement Heat Transfer Experiments Using the Transient Liquid Crystal Technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 23(11), p. 115303. [CrossRef]
Kingsley-Rowe, J. R., Lock, G. D., and Michael Owen, J., 2005, “Transient Heat Transfer Measurements Using Thermochromic Liquid Crystal: Lateral-Conduction Error,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 26(2), pp. 256–263. [CrossRef]
Moffat, R. J., 1988, “Describing the Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 1(1), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Yan, Y., and Owen, J. M., 2002, “Uncertainties in Transient Heat Transfer Measurements With Liquid Crystal,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 23(1), pp. 29–35. [CrossRef]
Florschuetz, L. W., Truman, C. R., and Metzger, D. E., 1981, “Streamwise Flow and Heat Transfer Distributions for Jet Array Impingement With Crossflow,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 103(2), pp. 337–342. [CrossRef]
Caggese, O., Gnaegi, G., Hannema, G., Terzis, A., and Ott, P., 2013, “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Fully Confined Impingement Round Jet,” Int. J. Heat Mass Trans., 65(6), pp. 873–883. [CrossRef]
Bouchez, J. P., and Goldstein, R. J., 1975, “Impingement Cooling From a Circular Jet in a Cross Flow,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 18(6), pp. 719–730. [CrossRef]
Hollworth, B. R., and Berry, R. D., 1978, “Heat Transfer From Arrays of Impinging Jets With Large Jet-to-Jet Spacing,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 100(2), pp. 352–357. [CrossRef]
Andrews, G. E., Durance, J., Hussain, C. I., and Ojobor, S. N., 1987, “Full Coverage Impingement Heat Transfer: Influence of the Number of Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(4), pp. 557–563. [CrossRef]
Kercher, D. M., and Tabakoff, W., 1970, “Heat Transfer by a Square Array of Round Air Jets Impinging Perpendicular to a Flat Surface Including the Effect of Spent Air,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 92(1), pp. 73–82. [CrossRef]
Chance, L. J., 1974, “Experimental Investigation of Air Impingement Heat Transfer Under an Array of Round Jets,” TAPPI, 57(6), pp. 108–112.
Bailey, J. C., and Bunker, R. S., 2002, “Local Heat Transfer and Flow Distributions for Impinging Jet Arrays of Dense and Sparse Extent,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30473. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Cast-in cooling channels in a turbine vane. (Reprinted with permission [3].)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Impingement cooling test facility

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of the test models

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Crossflow effect on the local heat transfer coefficients for small channel areas. ReD = 19,200.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) Jet mass velocity (Gj) distribution and (b) crossflow (Gcf) development, for various channel geometries and flow conditions. X/D = 5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Jet-plate discharge coefficient (Cd) for various channels over a range of ReD. X/D = 5.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Local area averaged heat transfer rate. X/D = 5, Δy∕D = 0, and ReD = 19,200.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Spanwise-averaged NuD distributions for all channel interior surfaces. ReD = 19,200, X/D = Y/D = 5, Z/D = 2, and Δy∕D = 0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Local heat transfer coefficient distributions for all channel interior surfaces. ReD = 19,200.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Target plate and sidewalls area averaged NuD for various channel configurations over the complete range of ReD

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Local area averaged heat transfer rate. X/D = Y/D = 5, ReD = 19,200.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Schematic representation of the correlation flow domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Model prediction capabilities for the target plate of the channel

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Comparison with Florschuetz's [25] correlation over the full range of flow conditions. X/D = Y/D = 5, Δy∕D = 0.



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In