Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Instabilities in a Multistage High-Speed High-Pressure Compressor on Its Test Rig—Part II: Deep Surge

[+] Author and Article Information
Flore Crevel

SNECMA Villaroche,
Rond Point René Ravaud—Réau,
Moissy-Cramayel 77550, France
e-mail: flore.crevel@gmail.com

Nicolas Gourdain

42 avenue Coriolis,
Toulouse 31057, France;
Aerodynamics, Energetic and
Propulsion Department,
10 avenue, Edouard Belin,
Toulouse 31055, France
e-mail: nicolas.gourdain@isae.fr

Xavier Ottavy

Turbomachinery group,
École Centrale de Lyon,
36 Avenue Guy de Collongue,
Écully 69130, France
e-mail: xavier.ottavy@ec-lyon.fr

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received January 13, 2014; final manuscript received June 28, 2014; published online July 22, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Aspi Wadia.

J. Turbomach 136(10), 101004 (Jul 22, 2014) (15 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4027968 History: Received January 13, 2014; Revised June 28, 2014

Aerodynamic instabilities such as stall and surge may occur in compressors, possibly leading to mechanical failures so their avoidance is crucial. A better understanding of those phenomena and an accurate prediction are necessary to improve both the performance and the safety. A surge event in a compressor threatens the mechanical integrity of the aircraft engine, and this remains true for a research compressor on a test rig. As a result, few experimental data on surge are available. Moreover, there are technological, restrictive constraints that exist on test rigs and limit severely the type of data obtainable experimentally. This partially explains why numerical simulation has become a usual, complementary and convenient tool to collect data in a compressor, as it does not disturb the flow nor does it encounter technological limits. Despite the inherent difficulties, an entire surge cycle has been simulated in a high-speed, high-pressure, multistage research compressor, using an implicit, time-accurate, 3D compressible unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes solver. First, the paper presents the main features of the surge cycle obtained, along with those from the experimental cycle, for a validation purpose. Four phases compose the surge cycle: surge inception, the reversed-flow phase, the recovery phase, and the repressurization of the compressor flow. All of them are described, and focus is put on surge inception and the reversed-flow phase, as they induce greater risk for the mechanical integrity of the machine.

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Fig. 1

Experimental compressor CREATE: (a) compressor CREATE test rig and (b) meridian view of the compressor CREATE

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Fig. 2

Computational domain: (a) computational domain of the compressor and (b) computational domains of the compressor rig

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Fig. 3

Successive phases of the simulated surge cycle: (a) temporal trace of the mass flow rate at the exit of stator S3 during the surge cycle; (b) temporal trace of the static pressure at the R3-S3 interface during the surge cycle; (c) phases of the cycle on a static pressure ratio/mass flow rate instantaneous map; and (d) phases of the cycle on a total pressure ratio/mass flow rate instantaneous map

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the duration of the phases of the experimental and numerical surge cycles [20] based on static pressure signals probed at R3–S3 interface at shroud

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Fig. 5

Evolution of the mass flow rate at the outlet of stator three after the closure of the vane

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Fig. 6

Evolution of axial speed at 50% span of each blade-row during the reversal of the flow. Order of the reversal of the flow in the three stages. (a) The flow still globally goes in the normal direction, t = 9.6 rev. (b) The third stage blocks the flow from upstream so the first stage reverses and the second stage follows, t = 9.8 rev. (c) The first two stages have reversed and their flow is established. The third stage can finally reverse and its flow can establish, t = 9.9 rev. (d) The flow in the whole compressor including the IGV is reversed, t = 10.2 rev.

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Fig. 7

Evolution of the mass flow rate at interblades interfaces: (a) mass flow rate at the inlet of rotor blades and (b) mass flow rate at the outlet of rotor blades

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Fig. 8

Reversal of the flow at surge inception with the isocontour Vx = 0. (a) Axial speed at midspan of R3-S3 interface. (b) Static pressure at midspan of R3-S3 interface. (c) 1—initial state, 16 rotating stall cells, t = 9.59 rev. (d) 2—coalescence of the cells, 8 stall cells left, t = 9.71 rev. (e) 3—reversal of the flow in progress, t = 9.83 rev. (f) 4—end of flow reversal, peaks of high pressure appear because of the stagnation points on rotor R3's tail, t = 9.88 rev.

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the temperature at 50% span through the compressor during the reversed-flow phase: (a) evolution of the static temperature in the compressor at 50% during the reversed flow phase, (b) evolution of total temperature of the IGV at reversed flow, and (c) evolution of static temperature upstream of the IGV and downstream of the stator S3 (numerical approach)

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Fig. 10

Total temperature at the inlet of the IGV for numerical and experimental approaches and modeling of the behavior of the experimental probe

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Fig. 11

Comparison of the evolution of static pressure at the shroud in the third stage for both approaches. Experiments from Ref. [20].

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Fig. 12

Absolute Mach number under reversed-flow conditions at 50% span of the compressor. White line: sonic line.

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Fig. 13

Relative flow angle and absolute Mach number in R3–S2 at reversed-flow conditions. Sonic line: dashed–dotted black line; rounded arrows: recirculation zones; straight arrows: direction of the main flow. (a) Field of relative flow angle in R3-S2 stage at reversed-flow conditions. (b) Field of absolute Mach number in stage R3-S2 at reversed-flow conditions.

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Fig. 14

Interpretation of the flow patterns at reversed-flow conditions. Solid black line: converging or diverging channels; dashed–dotted white line; sonic line; dashed white arrows: path of the flow. Discontinuity due to the difference of probing height in the two rows.

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the evolution of static pressure at the shroud in the third stage for both approaches during the recovery phase. Experiments from Ref. [20].

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Fig. 16

Recovery of the flow. Black line: Vx = 0. (a) Axial speed at midspan of R3-S3 interface. (b) Static pressure at midspan of R3-S3 interface. (c) 1—the axial speed is globally negative and low, t = 26.10 rev. (d) 2—large full span cells appear around the annulus, the flow reverses between the cells, t = 26.28 rev. (e) 3—the circumferential extent of the cells decreases, the axial speed is positive all around the annulus, t = 26.40 rev. (f) 4—the cells are vanishing and the flow is totally reversed back, t = 26.52 rev.

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Fig. 17

Evolution of the density gradient magnitude at 50% span of the compressor between the beginning and the end of the repressurization phase: (a) beginning of the repressurization phase, t = 0.21 s; (b) end of the repressurization phase, t = 0.5 s; and (c) difference of temperature between surge inception and the repressurization phase

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Fig. 18

Characteristics of the pressure ratio and mass flow rate before the second inception of surge: (a) evolution of the speed line of the compressor during the repressurization phase and the second inception of surge and (b) oscillation of the outlet mass flow rate before the second surge inception



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