Research Papers

Multall—An Open Source, Computational Fluid Dynamics Based, Turbomachinery Design System

[+] Author and Article Information
John D. Denton

Whittle Laboratory,
Cambridge University Engineering Department,
Cambridge CB3 ODY, UK
e-mail: jdd1@cam.ac.uk

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 11, 2017; final manuscript received August 24, 2017; published online September 26, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(12), 121001 (Sep 26, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1085; doi: 10.1115/1.4037819 History: Received July 11, 2017; Revised August 24, 2017

Turbomachinery design systems are usually the jealously guarded property of large companies, and the author is not aware of any for which the source code is freely available. This paper is aimed providing a freely available system that can be used by individuals or small companies who do not have access to an in-house system. The design system is based on the three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver Multall, which has been developed over many years. Multall can obtain solutions for individual blade rows or for multistage machines, and it can also perform quasi-3D (Q3D) blade-to-blade calculations on a prescribed stream surface and axisymmetric throughflow calculations. Multall is combined with a one-dimensional (1D) mean-line program, Meangen, which predicts the blading parameters on a mean stream surface and writes an input file for Stagen. Stagen is a blade geometry generation and manipulation program which generates and stacks the blading, combines it into stages, and writes an input file for Multall. The system can be used to design the main blade path of all types of turbomachines. Although it cannot design complex features such as shroud seals and individual cooling holes, these features can be modeled, and their effect on overall performance predicted. The system is intended to be as simple and easy to use as possible, and the solver is also very fast compared to most CFD codes. A great deal of user experience ensures that the overall performance is reasonably well predicted for a wide variety of machines. This paper describes the system in outline and gives an example of its use. The source codes are written in FORTRAN77 and are freely available for other users to try.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Denton, J. D. , 1994, “ Designing in Three Dimensions,” Turbomachinery Design Using CFD (AGARD Lecture Series No. 195), AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France.
Denton, J. D. , and Xu, L. , 1999, “ The Exploitation of Three-Dimensional Flow in Turbomachinery Design,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., J. Mech. Eng. Sci., 213(C2), pp. 125–137.
Turner, M. G. , Merchant, A. , and Bruna, D. , 2006, “ A Turbomachinery Design Tool for Teaching Design Concepts for Axial Flow Fans, Compressors and Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90105.
Denton, J. D. , 1975, “ A Time Marching Method for Two and Three Dimensional Blade-to-Blade Flows,” UK Aero Research Council, Cranfield, UK, Report.
Denton, J. D. , and Singh, U. K. , 1979, “ Time Marching Methods for Turbomachinery Flow Calculation,” Transonic Flows in Turbomachinery (VKI Lecture Series), von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Sint-Genesius-Rode, Belgium.
Denton, J. D. , 1990, “ The Calculation of Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Through Multistage Turbomachines,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-019.
Bryanston-Cross, P. J. , and Denton, J. D. , 1984, “ Comparison of Measured and Predicted Transonic Flow Around an Aerofoil,” AIAA J., 22(8), pp. 1025–1026. [CrossRef]
Fottner, L. , ed., 1990, Test Cases for Computation of Internal Flows in Aero Engine Components (AGARD Advisory Report No. AR-275), AGARD Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development, Neuilly sur Seine, France.
Jameson, A. , 1983, “ Solution of the Euler Equations for a Two Dimensional Transonic Flow by a Multigrid Method,” Appl. Math. Comput., 13(3–4), pp. 327–356.
Peterson, A. , 2006, “ Cavitation Prediction,” Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK.
Holmes, D. G. , 2008, “ Mixing Planes Revisited. A Steady State Mixing Plane Approach Designed to Combine High Levels of Conservation and Robustness,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-51296.
White, F. M. , 1991, Viscous Fluid Flow, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Baldwin, B. S. , and Lomax, H. , 1978, “ Thin Layer Approximation and Algebraic Model for Separated Turbulentflows,” AIAA Paper No. 78-257.
Spurr, A. , 1980, “ The Prediction of 3D Transonic Flow in Turbomachinery Using a Combined Throughflow and Blade-to-Blade Time Marching Method,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 2(4), pp. 189–199. [CrossRef]
Sturmayr, A. , and Hirsch, C. , 1999, “ Shock Representation by Euler Throughflow Models and Comparison With Pitch Averaged Navier–Stokes Equations,” American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Reston, VA, ISABE Paper No. 99-7281.
Jacobi, S. , and Rosic, B. , 2015, “ Development and Aerothermal Investigation of Integrated Combustor Vane Concept,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43217.
Brandvik, T. , and Pullan, G. , 2011, “ An Accelerated Navier–Stokes Solver for Flows in Turbomachines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021025. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Effects of local restagger on an LP turbine blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Blade thickness distributions obtained from Stagen

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Root, mean and tip blade sections for a last-stage steam turbine rotor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Prediction of the stagnation point on a turbine blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Solution for the staggered wedge test case

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

A 9 × 9 multigrid block composed of 9 × 3 × 3 blocks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Mixing plane treatment

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Mixing plane with shock and expansion waves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Static pressure for potential flow across a mixing plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

The cells used for a Q3D calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Cells used for a throughflow calculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Comparison of streamlines from throughflow and full 3D calculations, (b) comparison of throughflow and 3D solutions in the last stage of the LP steam turbine, and (c) midspan surface pressure distribution calculated by the throughflow method

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Computed trailing edge pressure distributions with and without a cusp

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Grid for a cusp model at the trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Contours of relative velocity through a water pump

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Compressor layout with contours of pitchwise averaged entropy

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Mach number contours at midspan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Surface pressure distribution at midspan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Computed characteristic of the compressor



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In