Research Papers

Effectiveness Measurements of Additively Manufactured Film Cooling Holes

[+] Author and Article Information
Curtis K. Stimpson

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Drive,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: curtis.stimpson@psu.edu

Jacob C. Snyder

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Drive,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: jacob.snyder@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
136 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@psu.edu

Dominic Mongillo

Pratt & Whitney,
400 Main Street,
East Hartford, CT 06118
e-mail: dominic.mongillo@pw.utc.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 14, 2017; final manuscript received October 3, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(1), 011009 (Oct 31, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1163; doi: 10.1115/1.4038182 History: Received September 14, 2017; Revised October 03, 2017

As additive manufacturing (AM) technologies utilizing metal powders continue to mature, the usage of AM parts in gas turbine engines will increase. Current metal AM technologies produce parts with substantial surface roughness that can only be removed from external surfaces and internal surfaces that are accessible for smoothing. Difficulties arise in making smooth the surfaces of small internal channels, which means the augmentation of pressure loss and heat transfer due to roughness must be accounted for in the design. As gas turbine manufacturers have only recently adopted metal AM technologies, much remains to be examined before the full impacts of applying AM to turbine parts are understood. Although discrete film cooling holes have been extensively studied for decades, this objective of this study was to understand how the roughness of film cooling holes made using AM can affect the overall cooling effectiveness. Coupons made from a high temperature nickel alloy with engine-scale film holes were tested in a rig designed to simulate engine relevant conditions. Two different hole sizes and two different build directions were examined at various blowing ratios. Results showed that the effectiveness is dependent on the build direction and the relative size of the hole. It was also discovered that commercially available AM processes could not reliably produce small holes with predictable behavior.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Snyder, J. C. , Stimpson, C. K. , Thole, K. A. , and Mongillo, D. , 2015, “ Build Direction Effects on Microchannel Tolerance and Surface Roughness,” ASME J. Mech. Des., 137(11), p. 111411. [CrossRef]
Snyder, J. C. , Stimpson, C. K. , Thole, K. A. , and Mongillo, D. , 2016, “ Build Direction Effects on Additively Manufactured Channels,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(5), p. 051006. [CrossRef]
Stimpson, C. K. , Snyder, J. C. , Thole, K. A. , and Mongillo, D. , 2016, “ Roughness Effects on Flow and Heat Transfer for Additively Manufactured Channels,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Stimpson, C. K. , Snyder, J. C. , Thole, K. A. , and Mongillo, D. J. , 2017, “ Scaling Roughness Effects on Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer of Additively Manufactured Channels,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Hanson, R. B. , 2014, “ Combustor Component With Cooling Holes Formed by Additive Manufacturing,” United Technologies Corporation, Farmington, CT, U.S. Patent No. 20140216042 A1. https://www.google.ch/patents/US20140216042
Xu, J. , 2014, “Gas Turbine Engine Shaped Film Cooling Hole,” United Technologies Corporation, Farmington, CT, U.S. Patent No. 20160003056 A1. https://encrypted.google.com/patents/EP2971667A4?cl=en
Johnson, T. E. , Keener, C. P. , Ostebee, H. M. , and Wegerif, D. G. , 2016, “Effusion Plate Using Additive Manufacturing Methods,” General Electric Company, Boston, MA, U.S. Patent No. 20140202163 A1. https://www.google.ch/patents/US9309809
Dudebout, R. , Brandt, D. , Waldman, D. , Neumann, J. , and Payne, A. , 2016, “Gas Turbine Engine Combustors With Effusion and Impingement Cooling and Methods for Manufacturing the Same Using Additive Manufacturing Techniques,” Honeywell International Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, U.S. Patent No. 20150226433 A1. http://www.google.com/patents/US20150226433
Schurb, J. , Hoebel, M. , Haehnle, H. , Kissel, H. , Bogdanic, L. , and Etter, T. , 2016, “Additive Manufacturing of Hot Gas Path Parts and Engine Validation in a Heavy Duty GT,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57262.
Vinton, K. R. , Nahang-Toudeshki, S. , Wright, L. M. , and Carter, A. , 2016, “Full Coverage Film Cooling Performance for Combustor Cooling Manufactured Using DMLS,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56504.
Jackowski, T. , Schulz, A. , Bauer, H.-J. , Gerendás, M. , and Behrendt, T. , 2016, “Effusion Cooled Combustor Liner Tiles With Modern Cooling Concepts: A Comparative Experimental Study,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56598.
Aghasi, P. , Gutmark, E. , and Munday, D. , 2016, “Dependence of Film Cooling Effectiveness on 3D Printed Cooling Holes,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56698.
Kirollos, B. , and Povey, T. , 2017, “ Laboratory Infra-Red Thermal Assessment of Laser-Sintered High-Pressure Nozzle Guide Vanes to De-Risk Engine Design Programmes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(4), p. 041009. [CrossRef]
Krawciw, J. , Martin, D. , and Denman, P. , 2015, “Measurement and Prediction of Adiabatic Film Effectiveness of Combustor Representative Effusion Arrays,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43210.
Schroeder, R. P. , and Thole, K. A. , 2017, “ Effect of In-Hole Roughness on Film Cooling From a Shaped Hole,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Schroeder, R. P. , 2015, “Influence of In-Hole Roughness and High Freestream Turbulence on Film Cooling From a Shaped Hole,” Ph.D. dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT.......470S
Albert, J. E. , Bogard, D. G. , and Cunha, F. , 2004, “Adiabatic and Overall Effectiveness for a Film Cooled Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53998.
Bunker, R. S. , 2009, “ The Effects of Manufacturing Tolerances on Gas Turbine Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(4), p. 041018. [CrossRef]
Schroeder, R. P. , and Thole, K. A. , 2014, “Adiabatic Effectiveness Measurements for a Baseline Shaped Film Cooling Hole,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25992.
EOS GmbH, 2014, “Material Data Sheet: EOS NickelAlloy HX,” EOS GmbH, Munich, Germany.
EOS GmbH, 2011, “Basic Training EOSINT M 280,” EOS GmbH, Munich, Germany.
Kays, W. M. , Crawford, M. E. , and Weigand, B. , 2004, Convective Heat & Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, Boston, MA.
Reinhart, C. , 2011, Industrial CT & Precision, Volume Graphics GmbH, Heidelberg, Germany.
Downs, J. P. , and Landis, K. K. , 2009, “Turbine Cooling Systems Design: Past, Present and Future,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59991.
Martiny, M. , Schulz, A. , and Wittig, S. , 1997, “Mathematical Model Describing the Coupled Heat Transfer in Effusion Cooled Combustor Walls,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-329.
Falcoz, C. , Weigand, B. , and Ott, P. , 2006, “ A Comparative Study on Showerhead Cooling Performance,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(7–8), pp. 1274–1286. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Test coupon features and dimensions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Coupon orientation during build showing vertical build direction and angled build direction

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Test rig developed for this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional area of film holes as a function as axial distance along the film hole in the direction of flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Cross section of coupon at one film hole obtained from CT scan on the (a) 1x-A-1H-AM, (b) 1x-V-1H-AM, (c) 1x-A-2H-EDM, (d) 1x-A-2H-AM, (e) 2x-A-1H-AM, and (f) 2x-V-1H-AM coupons showing the as built shape

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Scanning electron microscope micrographs of film cooling holes with the view aligned to the film hole axis for the (a) 1x-V-1H-AM, (b) 1x-A-2H-EDM, and (c) 2x-A-1H-AM coupons, and with the view aligned normal to the coupon top surface for the (d) 1x-V-1H-AM, (e) 1x-A-2H-EDM, and (f) 2x-A-1H-AM coupons

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Area-averaged effectiveness versus HLP for (a) 1× baseline coupons and (b) 2× baseline coupons. Dotted and dashed lines of constant internal effectiveness.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Flow parameter versus PR for all film holes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Contours of area-averaged effectiveness at M = 1.2 for AM holes ((a) and (b)) and EDM holes ((c) and (d))

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Area-averaged effectiveness of 1× AM and EDM

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Area-averaged effectiveness versus (a) blowing ratio and (b) PR at Rei = 14,000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Area-averaged effectiveness from leading to trailing edge of the hole, ±9D in lateral direction at Rei = 14,000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Average centerline effectiveness of three holes for two different blowing ratios at Rei = 14,000

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Contours of area-averaged effectiveness at Rei = 14,000 for 2× holes at angled build direction ((a) and (b)) and vertical build direction ((c) and (d))



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In