Research Papers

Complete Characterization of a Highly Loaded Low Pressure Compressor at Different Reynolds Numbers for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations

[+] Author and Article Information
Ruzbeh Hadavandi

Jacques Chauvin Laboratory,
Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department,
Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics,
Chaussée de Waterloo 72,
Rhode-St-Genèse B-1640, Belgium
e-mail: rhadavandi@hotmail.com

Fabrizio Fontaneto

Jacques Chauvin Laboratory,
Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department,
Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics,
Chaussée de Waterloo 72,
Rhode-St-Genèse B-1640, Belgium
e-mail: fontaneto@vki.ac.be

Julien Desset

Jacques Chauvin Laboratory,
Turbomachinery and Propulsion Department,
Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics,
Chaussée de Waterloo 72,
B-1640 Rhode-St-Genèse, Belgium
e-mail: desset@vki.ac.be

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received February 7, 2018; final manuscript received February 26, 2018; published online May 2, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(6), 061008 (May 02, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4039727 History: Received February 07, 2018; Revised February 26, 2018

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is nowadays extensively used for turbomachinery design and performance prediction. Nevertheless, compressors numerical simulations still fail in correctly predicting the stall inception and the poststall behavior. Several authors address such a lack of accuracy to the incomplete definition of the boundary conditions and of the turbulence parameters at the inlet of the numerical domain. The aim of the present paper is to contribute to the development of compressors CFD by providing a complete set of input data for numerical simulations. A complete characterization has been carried out for a state-of-art 1.5 stage highly loaded low-pressure compressor for which previous CFD analyses have failed to predict its behavior. The experimental campaign has been carried out in the R4 facility at the Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI). The test item has been tested in different operative conditions for two different speed lines (90% and 96% of the design speed) and for two different Reynolds numbers. Stable and unstable operative conditions have been investigated along with the stalling behavior, its inception, and the stall-cell flow field. Discrete hot-wire traverses have been performed in order to characterize the spanwise velocity field and the turbulence characteristics.

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Fig. 1

Cross section of the test section. Measurement planes enumeration is provided.

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Fig. 2

Detail of the hot-wire probes employed in the present measurement campaign

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Fig. 3

Measured compressor map in terms of static-to-total pressure ratio (π) and corrected mass flow (G)

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Fig. 4

Spanwise velocity distributions at plane 0 and plane 1 positions for the two different Reynolds number conditions. Design operative point at 96% of the nominal rotational speed.

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Fig. 5

Spanwise turbulence intensity distributions for the two investigated rotational speeds and Reynolds number levels. Each plots reports the plane 0 and plane 1 measurements for the design and peak pressure operative points.

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Fig. 6

Channel midheight turbulence spectra in the lowRe condition, the 96% speed-line is considered. The design operative point and the peak pressure are both shown.

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Fig. 7

Spanwise power spectra distributions in plane 1. LowRe condition at design operative point for the 96% speed-line case.

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Fig. 8

Positioning of the hot-wire probes in plane 1 for the stall-inception analysis

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Fig. 9

Modal-wave stall inception mechanism. 90%-highRe case, plane 1.

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Fig. 10

Flow breakdown at 90%-highRe. Hot-wire probes in plane 1.

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Fig. 11

Post-stall behavior. 96%-highRe, plane 1.

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Fig. 12

Comparison between the axial velocity magnitude (HW11 and HW12) and the tangential velocity magnitude (HW15) at flow breakdown and post-stall conditions. 96%-highRe, plane 1.

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Fig. 13

(a) Flow breakdown and post-stall behavior at 96%-highRe. (b) Detail view of time series around 2.74 s. HW15 in plane 0, HW11 and HW12 in plane 1. HW15 and HW11 are located at the same azimuthal position.

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Fig. 14

Hub and tip region time series of velocity in plane 1. 96%-highRe.

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Fig. 15

Post-stall behavior. 90%-highRe, plane 1.

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Fig. 16

Frequency carpet-plot for the stall inception, post-stall, and stall-recovery behavior; 96%-highRe, plane 1, midspan

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Fig. 17

Frequency carpet-plot for the stall inception, post-stall, and stall-recovery behavior; 96%-highRe, plane 1, low-frequency range



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