Research Papers

A Comprehensive Investigation of Blade Row Interaction Effects on Stator Loss Utilizing Vane Clocking

[+] Author and Article Information
Natalie R. Smith

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
500 Allison Rd,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: natalie.smith@swri.org

Nicole L. Key

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Purdue University,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: nkey@purdue.edu

1Present address: Machinery Program, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd, San Antonio, TX 78238.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 27, 2017; final manuscript received October 10, 2017; published online June 14, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(7), 071004 (Jun 14, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1178; doi: 10.1115/1.4040111 History: Received September 27, 2017; Revised October 10, 2017

Blade row interactions drive the unsteady performance of high-pressure compressors. Vane clocking is the relative circumferential positioning of consecutive stationary vane rows with the same vane count. By altering the upstream vane wake's path with respect to the downstream vane, vane clocking changes the blade row interactions and results in a change in steady total pressure loss on the downstream vane. The open literature lacks a conclusive discussion of the flow physics governing these interactions in compressors. This paper presents the details of a comprehensive vane clocking study on the embedded stage of the Purdue three-stage axial compressor. The steady loss results, including radial total pressure profiles and surface flow visualization, suggest a shift in the stator 2 corner separations occurs between clocking configurations associated with the maximum and minimum total pressure loss. To better understand the flow mechanisms driving the vane clocking effects on the steady stator 2 performance, time-resolved interrogations of the stator 2 inlet flow field, surface pressure unsteadiness, and boundary layer response were conducted. The stator 2 surface flows, both pressure unsteadiness and boundary layer transition, are influenced by vane clocking and interactions between rotor 1 and rotor 2, but neither of these results indicate a cause for the change in steady total pressure loss. Moreover, they are a result of upstream changes in the flow field: the interaction between the stator 1 wake and rotor 2 results in a circumferentially varying pattern which alters the inlet flow field for the downstream row, including the unsteadiness and frequency content in the tip and hub regions. Therefore, under different clocking configurations, stator 2 experiences significantly different inlet blockage and unsteadiness from the rotor 2 tip leakage flow and hub corner separation, which, in turn, shifts the radial blade loading distribution and subsequent loss development of stator 2.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Walker, G. J. , and Oliver, A. R. , 1972, “ The Effect of Interaction Between Wakes From Blade Rows in an Axial Flow Compressor on the Noise Generated by Blade Interaction,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 94(4), pp. 241–248. [CrossRef]
Schmidt, D. P. , and Okiishi, T. H. , 1977, “ Multistage Axial-Flow Turbomachine Wake Production, Transport, and Interaction,” AIAA J., 15(8), pp. 1138–1145. [CrossRef]
Kamiyoshi, S. , and Kaji, S. , 1992, “ Tone Noise Reduction of Multi-Stage Fan by Airfoil Clocking,” AIAA Paper No. 2000-1992.
Hsu, S. T. , and Wo, M. A. , 1998, “ Reduction of Unsteady Blade Loading by Beneficial of Vortical and Potential Disturbances in an Axial Compressor With Rotor Clocking,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(4), pp. 705–713. [CrossRef]
Mailach, R. , and Vogeler, K. , 2004, “ Aerodynamic Blade Row Interactions in an Axial Compressor—Part 1: Unsteady Boundary Layer Development,” ASME J. Turbomach., 126(1), pp. 35–44. [CrossRef]
Capece, S. R. , Manwaring, S. R. , and Fleeter, S. , 1986, “ Unsteady Blade Row Interactions in a Multistage Compressor,” AIAA J. Propul., 2(2), pp. 168–174. [CrossRef]
Gundy-Burlet, K. L. , and Dorney, D. J. , 1997, “ Physics of Airfoil Clocking in Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-444.
Barankiewicz, W. S. , and Hathaway, M. D. , 1997, “ Effects of Stator Indexing on Performance in a Low Speed Multistage Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-496.
Walker, G. J. , Hughes, J. D. , Köhler, I. , and Solomon, W. J. , 1997, “ The Influence of Wake-Wake Interactions on Loss Fluctuations of a Downstream Axial Compressor Blade Row,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-469.
Saren, V. E. , Savin, N. M. , Dorney, D. J. , and Zacharias, R. M. , 1997, “ Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Unsteady Rotor-Stator Interaction on Axial Compressor Stage (With IGV) Performance,” Eighth International Symposium, Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity of Turbomachines, Stockholm, Sweden, Sept. 14–18, pp. 407–424.
Key, N. L. , Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 2010, “ An Experimental Study of Vane Clocking Effects on Embedded Compressor Stage Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(1), p. 011018.
Städing, J. , Wulff, D. , Kosyna, G. , Becker, B. , and Gümmer, V. , 2011, “ An Experimental Investigation of Stator Clocking Effects in a Two-Stage Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45680.
Key, N. L. , 2013, “ Compressor Vane Clocking Effects on Embedded Rotor Performance,” J. Propul. Power, 30(1), pp. 246–248. [CrossRef]
Griffin, L. W. , Huber, F. W. , and Sharma, O. P. , 1996, “ Performance Improvement Through Indexing of Turbine Airfoils: Part 2—Numerical Simulation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 118(4), pp. 636–642. [CrossRef]
Dorney, D. J. , Sharma, O. P. , and Gundy-Burlet, K. L. , 1998, “ Physics of Airfoil Clocking in a High-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. 98-GT-82.
Walker, G. J. , Hughes, J. D. , and Solomon, W. J. , 1999, “ Periodic Transition on an Axial Compressor Stator: Incidence and Clocking Effects—Part I: Experimental Data,” ASME J. Turbomach., 121(3), pp. 398–407. [CrossRef]
Key, N. L. , Lawless, P. B. , and Fleeter, S. , 2008, “ An Investigation of the Flow Physics of Vane Clocking Using Unsteady Flow Measurements,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-51091.
Konig, S. , Stoffel, B. , and Schobeiri, M. T. , 2009, “ Experimental Investigation of the Clocking Effect in a 1.5-Stage Axial Turbine—Part II: Unsteady Results and Boundary Layer Behavior,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(2), p. 021004.
Dorney, D. J. , and Sharma, O. P. , 1996, “ A Study of Turbine Performance Increases Through Airfoil Clocking,” AIAA Paper No. 96-2816.
Murray, W. L., III , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of a Forced Response Condition in a Multistage Compressor,” M.S. thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/open_access_theses/735/
Hodson, H. P. , and Howell, R. J. , 2005, “ Bladerow Interactions, Transition, and High-Lift Aerofoils in Low-Pressure Turbines,” Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 37(1), pp. 71–98. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2015, “ Vane Clocking Effects on Stator Loss for Different Compressor Loading Conditions,” J. Propul. Power, 31(2), pp. 519–526. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2013, “ Vane Clocking Effects on Stall Margin in a Multistage Compressor,” J. Propul. Power, 29(4), pp. 891–898. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2015, “ Flow Visualization for Investigating Stator Losses in a Multistage Axial Compressor,” Exp. Fluids, 56(5), p. 94. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , 2015, “ An Experimental Study on the Effects of Blade Row Interactions on Aerodynamic Loss Mechanisms in a Multistage Compressor,” Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. https://docs.lib.purdue.edu/open_access_dissertations/558/
Wellborn, S. R. , 1996, “ Effects of Shrouded Stator Cavity Flows on Multistage Axial Compressor Aerodynamic Performance,” Ph.D. dissertation, Iowa State University, Ames, IA. https://lib.dr.iastate.edu/rtd/11344/
Smith, N. R. , Murray , W. L., III. , and Key, N. L. , 2015, “ Considerations for Measuring Compressor Aerodynamic Excitations Including Rotor Wakes and Tip Leakage Flows,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Mailach, R. , Lehmann, I. , and Vogeler, K. , 2008, “ Periodic Unsteady Flow Within a Rotor Blade Row of an Axial Compressor—Part II: Wake-Tip Clearance Vortex Interaction,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(4), p. 041005. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2017, “ Blade Row Interaction Effects on Unsteady Stator Loading in an Embedded Compressor Stage,” J. Propul. Power, 33(1), pp. 248–255. [CrossRef]
Berdanier, R. A. , and Key, N. L. , 2016, “ Experimental Characterization of Tip Leakage Flow Trajectories in a Multistage Compressor,” J. Propul. Power, 32(4), pp. 1022–1032. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2016, “ Vane Clocking Effects on Stator Suction Side Boundary Layers in a Multistage Compressor,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2016, p. 5921463. [CrossRef]
Smith, N. R. , and Key, N. L. , 2014, “ Unsteady Vane Boundary Layer Response to Rotor–Rotor Interactions in a Multistage Compressor,” J. Propul. Power, 30(2), pp. 416–425. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Definition of vane clocking configuration, CL

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Compressor flowpath including station numbering scheme and instrumentation locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Stator 2 instrumented with (a) leading edge Kiel-heads and static taps around the under stator knife seal, (b) Kulites embedded at 50% and 80% span, and (c) 18 sensor hot-film array

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Loading conditions along 100%Nc with change in stator 2 total pressure loss due to vane clocking

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Radial total pressure profiles downstream of stator 2 for six clocking configurations at three loading conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stator 2 wake profiles for two clocking configurations at (a) PE tip, (b) L6 tip, (c) L7 tip, (d) PE hub, (e) L6 hub, and (f) L7 hub

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Surface flow visualization of stator 2 suction surface for clocking configurations CL2 and CL5 at high loading

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

CP RMS average rotor 2 blade pass period for different clocking configuration at (a) peak efficiency, (b) L7, and (c) L8

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Time-averaged radial profiles of total pressure at the stator 2 inlet highlighting clocking configurations CL2 and CL5 at high loading

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Surface pressure unsteadiness on stator 2 suction side at 20%cx changes with clocking configuratio: (a) 50%span and (b) 80%span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Space-time diagrams of (a,c) QWSS RMS and (b,d) QWSS skew for two clocking configurations at loading L4 at 50%span: (a) CL2 RMS/RMSmax, (b) CL2 Skew/Skewmax, (c) CL5 RMS/RMSmax, and (d) CL5 Skew/Skewmax



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In