Research Papers

A Mixed-Fidelity Numerical Study for Fan–Distortion Interaction

[+] Author and Article Information
Yunfei Ma

Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
e-mail: ym324@cam.ac.uk

Jiahuan Cui

School of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
ZJU-UIUC Institute,
Zhejiang University,
Zhejiang 310007, China
e-mail: jiahuancui@intl.zju.edu.cn

Nagabhushana Rao Vadlamani

Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
e-mail: nrv24@cam.ac.uk

Paul Tucker

Department of Engineering,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
e-mail: pgt23@cam.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received June 26, 2018; final manuscript received July 11, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(9), 091003 (Aug 20, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1136; doi: 10.1115/1.4040860 History: Received June 26, 2018; Revised July 11, 2018

Inlet distortion often occurs under off-design conditions when a flow separates within an intake and this unsteady phenomenon can seriously impact fan performance. Fan–distortion interaction is a highly unsteady aerodynamic process into which high-fidelity simulations can provide detailed insights. However, due to limitations on the computational resource, the use of an eddy resolving method for a fully resolved fan calculation is currently infeasible within industry. To solve this problem, a mixed-fidelity computational fluid dynamics method is proposed. This method uses the large Eddy simulation (LES) approach to resolve the turbulence associated with separation and the immersed boundary method (IBM) with smeared geometry (IBMSG) to model the fan. The method is validated by providing comparisons against the experiment on the Darmstadt Rotor, which shows a good agreement in terms of total pressure distributions. A detailed investigation is then conducted for a subsonic rotor with an annular beam-generating inlet distortion. A number of studies are performed in order to investigate the fan's influence on the distortions. A comparison to the case without a fan shows that the fan has a significant effect in reducing distortions. Three fan locations are examined which reveal that the fan nearer to the inlet tends to have a higher pressure recovery. Three beams with different heights are also tested to generate various degrees of distortion. The results indicate that the fan can suppress the distortions and that the recovery effect is proportional to the degree of inlet distortion.

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Fig. 1

Hierarchy of turbulence and geometry modeling

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Fig. 2

Sketch of the Darmstadt rotor test case setup for validation

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Fig. 3

Sketch of the test cases for varying (a) fan-locations and (b) beam heights

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Fig. 4

Inflectional points of the separation bubble

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Fig. 5

Prediction of wall-normal profiles of (a) mass flux and (b) total pressure at x = 4.5H using different meshes

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Fig. 6

Performance map of the Darmstadt Rotor: (a) massflow rate (kg/s, 100% RS) and (b) massflow rate (kg/s, 65% RS). SC represents smooth casing and B120 represents 120 deg beam.

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Fig. 7

Contours of (a) axial velocity distribution on the meridional plane and (b) total pressure distribution on the cross section at upstream of the rotor trailing edge at 100% speed

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Fig. 8

Separation region downstream the beam

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Fig. 9

Circumferential variation of the relative total pressure ratio at three axial stations: (a) rotor inlet, (b) rotor outlet, and (c) stator outlet at 100% speed, radially averaged by area

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Fig. 10

Circumferential variation of the total pressure ratio at the stage exit at 100% speed. Three radial locations are shown: (a) 10%, (b) 50%, and (c) 90% of the annulus height: (a) hub, (b) midspan, and (c) shroud.

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Fig. 11

Radial distribution of mass flux from IBMSG modeling and resolved cases

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Fig. 12

Q-isosurfaces (Q = 1 × 107) coloured with axial velocity for different fan-locations (a) x = 6.2H and (b) x = 7.2H

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Fig. 13

Effects of different blade locations on (a) mass flux and (b) total pressure ratio

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Fig. 14

Recovery factor with varying (a) fan-locations x/H and (b) beam heights y/H

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Fig. 15

Q-isosurfaces (Q = 1 × 107) colored with axial velocity for different beam heights: (a) 1/2H, with fan and (b) 1/4H, with fan

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Fig. 16

Total pressure loss with increasing beam height

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Fig. 17

Effect of different degrees of distortion on (a) mass flux and (b) total pressure ratio in the absence of fan

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Fig. 18

Effect of different degrees of distortion on (a) mass flux and (b) total pressure ratio. “Loc0” corresponds to the case with fan placed at x = 5.2H and “Duct” corresponds to the case without fan.



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