Research Papers

The Effect of Nonequilibrium Boundary Layers on Compressor Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew P. S. Wheeler

Whittle Laboratory,
Department of Engineering,
Cambridge University,
Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK
e-mail: aw329@cam.ac.uk

Anthony M. J. Dickens, Robert J. Miller

Whittle Laboratory,
Department of Engineering,
Cambridge University,
Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 12, 2018; final manuscript received April 13, 2018; published online September 28, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(10), 101003 (Sep 28, 2018) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1057; doi: 10.1115/1.4040094 History: Received March 12, 2018; Revised April 13, 2018

The paper investigates the effect of nonequilibrium behavior of boundary layers on the profile loss of a compressor. The investigation is undertaken using both high fidelity simulations of a midheight section of a compressor blade and a reduced order model, MISES. The solutions are validated using experimental measurements made in the embedded stage of a multistage low speed compressor. The paper shows that up to 35% of the suction surface boundary layer of the compressor blade exhibits nonequilibrium behavior. The size of this region reduces as the Reynolds number is increased. The nonequilibrium behavior was found to reduce profile loss in cases of attached transition and raise loss where transition occurs through separation.

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Fig. 1

Schematic of boundary layer states on a compressor blade suction surface (top). Middle and lower plots show the variation in turbulence production and dissipation coefficient determined from high fidelity CFD (Re = 340k).

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Fig. 2

Comparison of enstrophy and kinetic energy decay rate against time from the Taylor–Green vortex case results of de Bonis (red) with 3DNS code using fourth-order Tamm and Webb (–) and eighth-order (–⋅–) discretizations with 1283 mesh points

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Fig. 3

Code performance on the Re3E5 case (see Table 1)

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Fig. 4

Block structure (upper) and example mesh (lower) showing every fourth grid line with leading-edge and trailing-edge detail also showing every fourth grid line (datum mesh)

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Fig. 5

The effect of spanwise extent on predicted wall shear stress (cases RE1E5, RE1E5W)

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Fig. 6

Comparison of predicted wall shear stress for three mesh sizes (cases RE3E5, RE3E5F, and RE3E5F2)

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Fig. 7

Example boundary-layer profiles (x/Cax = 0.75) on the pressure (black) and suction (red) surfaces, datum mesh Re = 340k, Tu = 3.5%

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Fig. 8

Example spectrum within the suction-side boundary layer (x/Cax = 0.98 and height within boundary layer y+ = 30). Datum mesh Re = 340k, Tu = 3.5%.

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Fig. 9

Isosurfaces of Q-criterion = 3 × 107 s−2. Color indicates spanwise velocity.

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Fig. 10

Instantaneous spanwise vorticity contours with and without freestream turbulence (Re = 340k)

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Fig. 11

Schematic of the SMURF three-stage compressor rig. R1, R2, and R3 represent rotors 1, 2, and 3, and S1, S2, and S3 represent stators 1, 2, and 3.

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Fig. 12

Comparison of the predicted turbulence spectrum (red) at 25% axial chord upstream of the stator leading-edge, and measured spectrum in the multistage rig at midspan rotor 3 exit (black)

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Fig. 13

Comparison of predicted total pressure wake profile (red) with experimental measurement measured in the multistage rig (black)

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Fig. 14

Instantaneous wall shear stress on the suction surface and pressure surface

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Fig. 15

Suction surface turbulence production (top) and instantaneous wall shear stress (Re = 340k, Tu = 3.5%)

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Fig. 16

Turbulent kinetic energy production and divergence of turbulent kinetic energy flux in the region of suction-surface transition

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Fig. 17

Suction-surface flow structure indicated by isosurfaces of Q-criterion = 3 × 108 s−2

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Fig. 18

Variations of cd and Pr with shape factor

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Fig. 19

Loading and skin friction comparison with MISES with prescribed transition (Re = 340k)

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Fig. 20

Loss prediction comparison with MISES with prescribed transition

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Fig. 21

The effect of shear-lag constant K on turbulence production as compared to iLES/DNS

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Fig. 22

Skin friction in region of suction-surface separation bubble (Re = 220k)

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Fig. 23

The effect of transition point and lag-constant K on suction surface boundary layer loss as predicted by MISES

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Fig. 24

Predicted percentage change in suction-surface loss due to nonequilibrium boundary layers. iLES/DNS data indicated by the black dots.



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