Research Papers

Experimental Deposition of NaCl Particles From Turbulent Flows at Gas Turbine Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter R. Forsyth

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: peter.forsyth@eng.ox.ac.uk

David R. H. Gillespie, Matthew McGilvray

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 13, 2018; final manuscript received July 9, 2018; published online January 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Coutier-Delgosha Olivier.

J. Turbomach 141(2), 021001 (Jan 16, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4041036 History: Received February 13, 2018; Revised July 09, 2018

The ingestion and deposition of solid particulates within gas turbine engines has become a very significant concern for both designers and operators in recent times. Frequently aircraft are operated in environments where sand, ash, dust, and salt are present, which can drive damage mechanisms from long term component degradation to in-flight flame-out. Experiments are presented to assess deposition characteristics of sodium chloride (NaCl) at gas turbine secondary air system temperature conditions in horizontal pipe flow. Monodisperse NaCl particles were generated in the size range 2.0–6.5 µm, with gas temperatures 390–480 °C, and metal temperatures 355–730 °C. Two engine-representative surface roughnesses were assessed. An experimental technique for the measurement of deposited NaCl based on solution conductivity was developed and validated. Experiments were carried out under isothermal and nonisothermal/thermophoretic conditions. An initial experimental campaign was conducted under ambient and isothermal conditions; high temperature isothermal results showed good similarity. Under thermophoretic conditions, deposition rates varied by up to several orders of magnitude compared to isothermal rates.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Cardwell, N. , Thole, K. , and Burd, S. , 2010, “ Investigation of Sand Blocking Within Impingement and Film-Cooling Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(2), p. 021020. [CrossRef]
Wylie, S. , Bucknell, A. , Forsyth, P. , McGilvray, M. , and Gillespie, D. , 2017, “ Reduction in Flow Parameter Resulting From Volcanic Ash Deposition in Engine-Representative Cooling Passages,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(3), p. 031008. [CrossRef]
Suman, A. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. , 2014, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Subsonic Axial Compressor Blade—Part I: Particle Zones Impact,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Prenter, R. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. , 2016, “ Deposition of a Cooled Nozzle Guide Vane With Nonuniform Inlet Temperatures,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(10), p. 101005. [CrossRef]
Gosman, A. , and Ionnides, E. , 1983, “ Aspects of Computer Simulation of Liquid-Fuelled Combustors,” J. Energy, 7(6), pp. 482–490. [CrossRef]
Tian, L. , and Ahmadi, G. , 2006, “ Particle Deposition in Turbulent Duct Flows—Comparisons of Different Model Predictions,” J. Aerosol Sci., 38(4), pp. 377–397. [CrossRef]
Dehbi, A. , 2008, “ Turbulent Particle Dispersion in Arbitrary Wall-Bounded Geometries: A Coupled CFD-Langevin-Equation Based Approach,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 34(9), pp. 819–828. [CrossRef]
Forsyth, P. , Gillespie, D. , and McGilvray, M. , “ Validation and Assessment of the Continuous Random Walk Model for Particle Deposition in Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57332.
Dehbi, A. , 2010, “ Validation Against DNS Statistics of the Normalized Langevin Model for Particle Transport in Turbulent Channel Flows,” Powder Technol., 200(1–2), pp. 60–68. [CrossRef]
Healy, D. , and Young, J. , 2010, “ An Experimental and Theoretical Study of Particle Deposition Due to Thermophoresis and Turbulence in an Annular Flow,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 36(11–12), pp. 870–881. [CrossRef]
Young, J. , and Leeming, A. , 1997, “ A Theory of Particle Deposition in Turbulent Pipe Flow,” J. Fluid Mech., 340, pp. 129–159. [CrossRef]
Friedlander, S. , and Johnstone, H. , 1957, “ Deposition of Suspended Particles From Turbulent Gas Streams,” Ind. Eng. Chem., 49(7), pp. 1151–1156. [CrossRef]
Sehmel, G. , 1968, “ Aerosol Deposition From Turbulent Airstreams in Vertical Conduits,” AEC Research and Development Report, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, Report No. BNWL-578.
Liu, B. , and Agarwal, J. , 1974, “ Experimental Observation of Aerosol Deposition in Turbulent Flow,” J. Aerosol Sci., 5(2), pp. 145–155. [CrossRef]
Kvasnak, W. , Ahamadi, G. , Bayer, R. , and Gaynes, M. , 1993, “ Experimental Investigation of Dust Particle Deposition in a Turbulent Channel Flow,” J. Aerosol Sci., 34(6), pp. 795–815. [CrossRef]
Montgomery, T. , and Corn, M. , 1970, “ Aerosol Deposition in a Pipe With Turbulent Airflow,” Aerosol Sci., 1(3), pp. 185–213. [CrossRef]
Sippola, M. , and Nazaroff, W. , 2004, “ Experiments Measuring Particle Deposition From Fully Developed Turbulent Flow in Ventilation Ducts,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 38(9), pp. 914–925. [CrossRef]
Lundgreen, R. , Sacco, C. , Prenter, R. , and Bons, J. , 2016, “ Temperature Effects on Nozzle Guide Vane Deposition in a New Turbine Cascade Rig,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57560.
Schiller, L. , and Naumann, A. , 1935, “ A Drag Coefficient Correlation,” Z. Des Vereins Deutscher Ingenieure, 77, pp. 318–320.
Young, J. , 2011, “ Thermophoresis of a Spherical Particle: Reassessment, Clarification, and New Analysis,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 45(8), pp. 927–948. [CrossRef]
Sagot, B. , 2013, “ Thermophoresis for Spherical Particles,” J. Aerosol Sci., 65(1), pp. 10–20. [CrossRef]
Talbot, L. , Cheng, R. , Schefer, R. , and Willis, D. , 1980, “ Thermophoresis of Particles in a Heated Boundary Layer,” J. Fluid Mech., 101(04), pp. 737–758. [CrossRef]
Kline, S. J. , and McClintock, F. , 1953, “ Describing Uncertainties in Single-Sample Experiments,” Mech. Eng., 75(1), pp. 3–8.
Sehmel, G. , 1972, “ Particle Eddy Diffusivities and Deposition Velocities for Isothermal Flow and Smooth Surfaces,” Aerosol Sci., 4(1), pp. 125–138.
Reagle, C. , Delimont, J. , Ng, W. , and Ekkad, S. , 2014, “ Study of Microparticle Rebound Characteristics Under High Temperature Conditions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(1), p. 011501. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Summary of some key experimental data for particle deposition in turbulent vertical pipe (markers) and horizontal channel (green region) flows at ambient conditions. Adapted from Ref. [11].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental test piece with test insert removed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Measured solution conductivity dependence on NaCl concentration. Plotting axis reversed as experimental analysis requires Cm=Cm(G). Conductivity at 25 °C.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, colored by Re

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, colored by nominal particle kinetic energy Ek, p. Lines show theoreticaldeposition curves for coefficient of restitution r=0.0, r=0.5, r=0.96 from Ref. [15].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, comparing surface roughnesses. EXPα: Ra=0.22µm. EXPβ: Ra=1.12µm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Comparison of all isothermal hot data with ambient temperature experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Nondimensional deposition velocity versus nondimensional particle relaxation time for thermophoretic experiments

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Log of normalized deposition fraction ln(fd¯) against thermophoretic parameter PTh+



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In