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Research Papers

Development and Use of Machine-Learnt Algebraic Reynolds Stress Models for Enhanced Prediction of Wake Mixing in Low-Pressure Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
H. D. Akolekar

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Melbourne,
Parkville 3010, VIC, Australia
e-mail: hakolekar@student.unimelb.edu.au

J. Weatheritt, N. Hutchins, R. D. Sandberg

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Melbourne,
Parkville 3010, VIC, Australia

G. Laskowski

General Electric Aviation,
Lynn, MA 01905
e-mail: laskowsk@ge.com

V. Michelassi

Baker Hughes, a GE Company,
Florence 50127, Italy
e-mail: vittorio.michelassi@bhge.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 3, 2018; final manuscript received October 14, 2018; published online March 7, 2019. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(4), 041010 (Mar 07, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1280; doi: 10.1115/1.4041753 History: Received October 03, 2018; Revised October 14, 2018

Nonlinear turbulence closures were developed that improve the prediction accuracy of wake mixing in low-pressure turbine (LPT) flows. First, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) calculations using five linear turbulence closures were performed for the T106A LPT profile at isentropic exit Reynolds numbers 60,000 and 100,000. None of these RANS models were able to accurately reproduce wake loss profiles, a crucial parameter in LPT design, from direct numerical simulation (DNS) reference data. However, the recently proposed kv2¯ω transition model was found to produce the best agreement with DNS data in terms of blade loading and boundary layer behavior and thus was selected as baseline model for turbulence closure development. Analysis of the DNS data revealed that the linear stress–strain coupling constitutes one of the main model form errors. Hence, a gene-expression programming (GEP) based machine-learning technique was applied to the high-fidelity DNS data to train nonlinear explicit algebraic Reynolds stress models (EARSM), using different training regions. The trained models were first assessed in an a priori sense (without running any RANS calculations) and showed much improved alignment of the trained models in the region of training. Additional RANS calculations were then performed using the trained models. Importantly, to assess their robustness, the trained models were tested both on the cases they were trained for and on testing, i.e., previously not seen, cases with different flow features. The developed models improved prediction of the Reynolds stress, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) production, wake-loss profiles, and wake maturity, across all cases.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sketch of the T106A blade geometry and domain boundaries

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Fig. 2

Pressure coefficient distribution across the blade at Re2is=60,000. Inset showed zoomed view of suction side (0.7 ≤x/Cax≤1).

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Fig. 3

Wall shear stress on the suction side at Re2is=60,000. Inset shows zoomed view of (0.79 ≤x/Cax≤1).

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Fig. 4

Displacement thickness, momentum thickness, and shape factor on the suction side at Re2is=60,000

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Fig. 5

Magnitude of velocity contours depicting open and closed separation bubbles at (a) Re2is=60,000 and (b) Re2is=100,000, generated using the kv2¯ω model

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Fig. 6

Wake loss profiles for (a) Re2is = 60,000 and (b) Re2is = 100,000, at 40% chord downstream of the trailing edge

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Fig. 7

GEP algorithm flow depicting inputs and output

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Fig. 8

Training regions for model development

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Fig. 9

Histogram of the GEP cost function (J) at (a) Re2is = 60,000 and (b) Re2is = 100,000

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Fig. 10

(a) Alignment of anisotropy and negative strain for the linear Boussinesq approximation and (b) alignment contour with the linear Boussinesq approximation and 60k-Wake model applied in the regions x/C < 0.95 and x/C ≥ 0.95 respectively, at Re2is = 60,000. Additional contour at γ = 0.75.

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Fig. 11

Shear component of Reynolds stress at 40% chord downstream for (a) Re2is=60,000 and (b) Re2is=100,000

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Fig. 12

Production of TKE at 40% chord downstream for (a) Re2is=60,000 and (b) Re2is=100,000

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Fig. 13

Wake loss profiles at 40% chord downstream for (a) Re2is = 60,000 and (b) Re2is = 100,000

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Fig. 14

Nondimensionalized wake maturity for (a) Re2is = 60,000 and (b) Re2is = 100,000

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