0
Research Papers

One-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Design Strategies for Pressure Slope Optimization of High-Flow Transonic Centrifugal Compressor Impellers

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Hildebrandt

MAN Energy Solutions SE,
Steinbrinkstraße 1,
Oberhausen 46145, Germany
e-mail: andre.hildebrandt@man-es.com

T. Ceyrowsky

MAN Energy Solutions SE,
Steinbrinkstraße 1,
Oberhausen 46145, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received June 22, 2018; final manuscript received October 31, 2018; published online January 21, 2019. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(5), 051002 (Jan 21, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1135; doi: 10.1115/1.4041907 History: Received June 22, 2018; Revised October 31, 2018

This paper deals with the numerical and theoretical investigations of the effect of geometrical dimensions and one-dimensional (1D)-design parameters on the impeller pressure slope of a transonic centrifugal compressor stage for industrial process application. A database being generated during the multi-objective and multipoint design process of a high flow coefficient impeller, comprising 545 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) designs is investigated in off-design and design conditions by means of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulation of an impeller with vaneless diffuser. For high flow coefficients of 0.16 < ϕdes < 0.18, the CFD-setup has been validated against measurement data regarding stage and impeller performance taken from MAN test rig experimental data for a centrifugal compressor stage of similar flow coefficient. This paper aims at answering the question how classical design parameter, such as the impeller blade angle distribution, impeller suction diameter, and camber line length affect the local and total relative diffusion and pressure slope toward impeller stall operation. A second-order analysis of the CFD database is performed by cross-correlating the CFD data with results from impeller two-zone 1D modeling and a rapid loading calculation process by Stanitz and Prian. The statistical covariance of first-order 1D-analysis parameters such as the mixing loss of the impeller secondary flow, the slip factor, impeller flow incidence is analyzed, thereby showing strong correlation with the design and off-design point efficiency and pressure slope. Finally, guide lines are derived in order to achieve either optimized design point efficiency or maximum negative pressure slope characteristics toward impeller stall operation.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Verstraete, T. , Alsalihi, Z. , and Van den Braembussche, R. , 2010, “ Multi-Disciplinary Optimization of a Radial Compressor for Micro Gas Turbine Applications,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Geller, M. , Schemmann, C. , and Kluck, N. , 2017, “ Optimization of the Operation Characteristic of a Highly Stressed Centrifugal Compressor Impeller Using Automated Optimization and Meta-Modelling Methods,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63262.
Guo, Z. , Song, L. , Zhou, Z. , Li, J. , and Feng, Z. , 2015, “ Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Optimization Design and Data Mining of a High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Impeller,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(9), p. 092602. [CrossRef]
Liu, X. M. , and Zhang, W. B. , 2010, “ Two Schemes of Multi-Objective Aerodynamic Optimization for Centrifugal Impeller Using Response Surface Model and Genetic Algorithm,” ASME Paper No.GT2010-23775.
Li, X. , Zhao, Y. , Liu, Z. , and Chen, H. , 2016, “ The Optimization of a Centrifugal Impeller Based on a New Multi-Objective Evolutionary Strategy,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56592.
Hehn, A. , Mosdzien, M. , Grates, D. , and Jeschke, P. , 2018, “ Aerodynamic Optimization of a Transonic Centrifugal Compressor by Using Arbitrary Blade Surfaces,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(5), p. 051011. [CrossRef]
Hunziker, R. , Dickmann, H. P. , and Emmrich, R. , 2001, “ Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Centrifugal Compressor With an Inducer Casing Bleed System,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 215(Part A), pp. 783–791.
Bareiß, S. , Vogt, D. M. , and Chebli, E. , 2015, “ Investigation on the Impact of Circumferential Grooves on the Aerodynamic Centrifugal Compressor Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42211.
Numakura, R. , Tamaki, H. , Hazby, H. , and Casey, M. , 2014, “ Effect of a Recirculation Device on the Performance of Transonic Mixed Flow Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25365.
Erdmenger, R. R. , and Michelassi, V. , 2014, “ Impact of Main and Splitter Blade Leading Edge Contour on the Performance of High Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-27062.
Harley, P. , Spence, S. , Filsinger, D. , Dietrich, M. , and Early, J. , 2013, “ Assessing 1D Loss Models for the Off-Design Performance Prediction of Automotive Turbocharger Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94262.
Galvas, M. R. , 1973, “ Fortran Program for Predicting Off-Design Performance of Centrifugal Compressors,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Report No. NASA-TN-D-7487, E-7480. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19740001912
Casey, M. , and Robinson, C. , 2012, “ A Method to Estimate the Performance Map of a Centrifugal Compressor Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(2), p. 021034. [CrossRef]
Rodgers, C. , 2005, “ Flow Ranges of 8.0:1 Pressure Ratio Centrifugal Compressors for Aviation Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68041.
Rusch, D. , and Casey, M. , 2013, “ The Design Space Boundaries for High Flow Capacity Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(3), p. 031035. [CrossRef]
Tomita, I. , Ibaraki, S. , Furukawa, M. , and Yamada, K. , 2012, “ The Effect of Tip Leakage Vortex for Operating Range Enhancement of Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68947.
Tamaki, H. , Masaru, U. , Kawakubo, T. , and Yutaka, H. , 2010, “ Aerodynamic Design of Centrifugal Compressor or AT14 Turbocharger,” IHI Eng. Rev., 43(2), pp. 70–76.
Tomita, I. , Ibaraki, S. , Wakashima, K. , Furukawa, M. , Yamada, K. , and Kanzaki, D. , 2015, “ Effects of Flow Path Height of Impeller Exit and Diffuser on Flow Fields in a Transonic Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43271.
Stanitz, J. D. , and Prian, V. D. , 1951, “ A Rapid Approximate Method for Determining Velocity Distribution on Impeller Blades of Centrifugal Compressors,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NACA-TN-2421.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Compressor map showing six operational points for analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Pareto front of objective function and (b) work input versus design point efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) At flow coefficient Φnorm = 0.85, slope of pressure coefficient as function of work-input and efficiency derivatives and (b) slope of pressure coefficient as function of work-input and efficiency derivatives at Φnorm = 0.88

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

(a) Impeller inlet optimization (1D: lines, CFD: circles) and (b) normalized choke flow margin versus CFD work-input and pressure slope

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) 1D-stage efficiency and (b) CFD-stage efficiency as function of swirl angle λ and impeller exit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sensitivity analysis of shroud blade angle distribution on design point efficiency; big circles: DOE-, small circles: opt. samples

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

(a) Incidence correlated with design point efficiency and slope and (b) pressure slope correlated with derivatives of mixing loss ω24 and flow angle α2 at ϕnorm = 85%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

(a) Pressure slope and (b) design point efficiency as function of mixing loss ω24 and flow angle α2 at ϕdes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

(a) Pressure slope as function of CFD-calculated impeller slip factors and (b) pressure slope as function of relative diffusion ratio and shroud camber length

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

(a) Geometry domain for Stanitz and Prian impeller flow calculation and (b) example of blade loading calculation result on mean radius

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pressure slope at ϕnorm = 85% as function of the impeller loading and relative diffusion at 10%, 15%, 20%, and 30% camber length

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

(a) Pressure slope as function of relative velocity at 15% camber length and (b) global diffusion ratio and slope of relative diffusion at 12% camber length

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

(a) Design point efficiency and (b) pressure slope at ϕnorm = 0.93 as function of relative velocity and blade loading at 10% camber length

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison Spearman and Pearson 1D-correlations for pressure slope at ϕnorm = 0.85

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Computational fluid dynamics calculated characteristic maps of five selected samples (AE) from the slope-efficiency Pareto-Front

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Computational fluid dynamics impeller static pressure rise on 95% span at ϕdes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Computational fluid dynamics calculated relative Mach number at impeller exit (S3 plane) at ϕdes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Computational fluid dynamics results of the optimized new stage design “impeller sample C” versus old (reference) impeller design @Mau2 = 1.1 at impeller exit (curve 02), diffuser inlet (curve 03) and diffuser outlet (curve 04), calculated with a vaned diffuser

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Computational fluid dynamics model for the analysis showing the impeller exit section and the diffuser inlet section (for stage evaluation)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Test rig setup for aerodynamic measurements of the reference design

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In