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Research Papers

Tonal Noise Prediction of a Modern Turbofan Engine With Large Upstream and Downstream Distortion

[+] Author and Article Information
Majd Daroukh

CFD Team,
CERFACS,
Toulouse 31100, France;
Department of Aerodynamics and Acoustics,
Safran Aircraft Engines,
Moissy-Cramayel 77550, France
e-mail: majd.daroukh@hotmail.fr

Stéphane Moreau

Mechanical Engineering Department,
University of Sherbrooke,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: stephane.smoreau@gmail.com

Nicolas Gourdain

Department of Aerodynamics,
Energetics and Propulsion,
ISAE-Supaero,
University of Toulouse,
Toulouse 31400, France

Jean-François Boussuge

CFD Team,
CERFACS,
Toulouse 31100, France

Claude Sensiau

Department of Aerodynamics and Acoustics,
Safran Aircraft Engines,
Moissy-Cramayel 77550, France

1Corresponding authors.

Manuscript received April 2, 2018; final manuscript received November 26, 2018; published online January 31, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Coutier-Delgosha Olivier.

J. Turbomach 141(2), 021010 (Jan 31, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1073; doi: 10.1115/1.4042163 History: Received April 02, 2018; Revised November 26, 2018

Ultra-high bypass ratio (UHBR) engines are designed as compact as possible and are characterized by a short asymmetric air inlet and heterogeneous outlet guide vanes (OGVs). The flow close to the fan is therefore circumferentially nonuniform (or distorted) and the resulting noise might be impacted. This is studied here at take-off conditions by means of a simulation of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) equations of a full-annulus fan stage. The model includes an asymmetric air inlet, a fan, heterogeneous OGVs, and homogeneous inlet guide vanes (IGVs). Direct acoustic predictions are given for both inlet and aft noises. A novel hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting method based on a modal decomposition is developed and is applied for the aft noise analysis. The noise mechanisms that are generally considered (i.e., interaction of fan-blade wakes with OGVs and fan self-noise) are shown to be impacted by the distortion. In addition, new sources caused by the interaction between the stationary distortion and the fan blades appear and contribute to the inlet noise.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Overview of the engine model

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Fig. 2

Schematic view of the computational domain

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Fig. 3

Axial evolution of the acoustic power at the BPF: without filtering, filtering based on local velocity—tfilt = 0.2, filtering based on averaged velocity—tfilt = 0.2, filtering based on averaged velocity—tfilt = 0.5

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Fig. 4

Axial wavenumbers of the pressure coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: initial signal, filtered signal

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Fig. 5

Axial evolution of the pressure coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: initial signal, reconstructed signal, filtered signal

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Fig. 6

Axial wavenumbers of the axial velocity coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: initial signal, filtered signal

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Fig. 7

Axial evolution of the axial velocity coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: initial signal, reconstructed signal, filtered signal

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Fig. 8

Axial evolution of the axial velocity coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: … without filtering, P filtering, P + V filtering

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Fig. 9

Axial evolution of the pressure coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: … without filtering, P filtering, PV filtering

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Fig. 10

Axial evolution of the axial velocity coefficient associated with the mode (m =6, n =0) at the BPF: … without filtering, P filtering, PV filtering

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Fig. 11

Axial evolution of acoustic power at the BPF: without filtering, P filtering, P + V filtering, PV filtering

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous contour map of normalized axial velocity at h/H = 95% (fine simulation with inlet distortion)

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Fig. 13

Normalized mean axial velocity upstream of the OGVs (fine simulation with inlet distortion)

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Fig. 14

Normalized mean axial velocity upstream of the fan (fine simulation with inlet distortion)

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Fig. 15

Evolution of the CDC along the machine rotational axisat different channel heights (fine simulation with inlet distortion): h/H = 25%, h/H = 50%, h/H = 75%, h/H = 95%

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Fig. 16

Evolution of the CDC along the machine rotational axis at 95% of channel height: coarse simulation without inlet distortion, coarse simulation with inlet distortion, fine simulation with inlet distortion

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Fig. 17

Time variation of the normalized velocity deficit upstream of the OGVs at 95% of vane height (fine simulation with inlet distortion): position θ1, position θ2

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Fig. 18

Azimuthal variation of the maximum velocity deficit at different channel heights (fine simulation with inlet distortion): h/H = 25%, h/H = 50%, h/H = 75%, h/H = 95%

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Fig. 19

Azimuthal variation of the maximum velocity deficit at 95% of channel height: coarse simulation without inlet distortion, coarse simulation with inlet distortion, fine simulation with inlet distortion

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Fig. 20

Isentropic Mach number distribution over one fan blade at h/H =95% (fine simulation with inlet distortion): mean distribution, envelope

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Fig. 21

Isentropic Mach number distribution over one fan blade at h/H =95% (coarse simulation without inlet distortion): mean distribution, envelope

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Fig. 22

Isentropic Mach number distribution over one fan blade at h/H =95%: coarse simulation without inlet distortion, coarse simulation with inlet distortion, fine simulation with inlet distortion

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Fig. 23

Acoustic power carried by the azimuthal modes and total acoustic power in the inlet plane (fine simulation with inlet distortion): total power, reconstructed power, mode power

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Fig. 24

Evolution of the total power and the power associated with the six most important modes in the inlet duct (fine simulation with inlet distortion): total power, m = −18, m = −17, m = −19, m = −16, m = −20, m = −15

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Fig. 25

Acoustic power carried by the azimuthal modes andtotal acoustic power in the inlet plane: coarse simulation without inlet distortion (total power), coarse simulation without inlet distortion (mode power), coarse simulation with inlet distortion (total power), coarse simulation with inlet distortion (mode power), fine simulation with inlet distortion (total power)

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Fig. 26

Acoustic power carried by the azimuthal modes and total acoustic power in the outlet plane (fine simulation with inlet distortion): total power, mode power, Tyler and Sofrin mode power

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Fig. 27

Evolution of the total power and the power associated with the six most important modes in the outlet duct: total power, m =14, m =16, m = −15, m =11, m = −13, m =5

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Fig. 28

Acoustic power carried by the azimuthal modes and total acoustic power in the outlet plane: coarse simulation without inlet distortion (total power), coarse simulation without inlet distortion (mode power), coarse simulation with inlet distortion (total power), coarse simulation with inlet distortion (mode power), fine simulation with inlet distortion (total power)

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