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Research Papers

Loss Reduction in a 1.5 Stage Axial Turbine by Computer-Driven Stator Hub Contouring

[+] Author and Article Information
Hayder M. B. Obaida

Middle Technical University,
Engineering Technical College,
Baghdad, 7F7P+JG, Iraq
e-mail: Dr.Haydermahdi@mtu.edu.iq

Aldo Rona

Mem. ASME
Department of Engineering,
University of Leicester,
Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
e-mail: ar45@leicester.le.ac.uk

J. Paul Gostelow

Fellow ASME
Department of Engineering,
University of Leicester,
Leicester, LE1 7RH, UK
e-mail: jpg7@leicester.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 9, 2017; final manuscript received December 11, 2018; published online January 29, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Rolf Sondergaard.

J. Turbomach 141(6), 061009 (Jan 29, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1028; doi: 10.1115/1.4042305 History: Received February 09, 2017; Revised December 11, 2018

Improvements in stage isentropic efficiency and reductions in total pressure loss are sought in a 1.5 stage axial turbine. This is representative of power generation equipment used in thermal power cycles, which delivers about 80% of the 20 × 1012 kWh world-wide electricity. Component-level improvements are therefore timely and important toward achieving carbon dioxide global emission targets. Secondary flow loss reduction is sought by applying a nonaxisymmetric endwall design to the turbine stator hub. A guide groove directs the pressure side branch of the horseshoe vortex away from the airfoil suction side, using a parametric endwall hub surface, which is defined as to obtain first-order smooth boundary connections to the remainder of the passage geometry. This delays the onset of the passage vortex and reduces its associated loss. The Automatic Process and Optimization Workbench (apow) generates a Kriging surrogate model from a set of Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, which is used to optimize the hub surface. The three-dimensional steady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes model with an axisymmetric hub is validated against reference experimental measurements from the Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule (RWTH) Aachen. Comparative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions with an optimized nonaxisymmetric hub show a decrease in the total pressure loss coefficient and an increase in the isentropic stage efficiency at and off design conditions.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Radial distribution of meridional, circumferential, and absolute velocity 0.142 s behind the rotor airfoil row

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Radial distribution of yaw angle at 0.142 s behind the rotor airfoil row

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Fig. 4

Spanwise profiles of circumferential and meridional velocity components traversed 0.142 s downstream of the rotor trailing edge. Predictions using three progressively finer computational meshes.

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Fig. 3

Radial distribution of meridional velocity component 2.3 s upstream of the stator 1 airfoil row

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the 1.5 stage turbine flow passage

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the turbine stage on the cascade plane [29]. All lengths in mm.

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Fig. 7

Flow visualization near the stator 1 pressure side leading edge showing the separation of the oncoming hub wall boundary layer on approach to the vane

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Fig. 8

Flow visualization over the stator 1 axisymmetric hub, by ribbons

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Fig. 15

Relative difference between Kriging surrogate surface with 100% of the test data and regenerated Kriging surrogate using 90% of the test data

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Fig. 9

Automatic Process and Optimization Workbench flow diagram

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Fig. 10

Inflating the upstream stator airfoil profile to generate the groove path line

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Fig. 11

Effect of changing the maximum groove depth position from 60% to 80% of the total groove length on the groove depth

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Fig. 12

Nonaxisymmetric upstream stator hub surface imported in ICEM CFD as a NURBS surface

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Fig. 13

Kriging surrogate surface for optimization task 1

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Fig. 14

Kriging surrogate surface for optimization task 2

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Fig. 17

Radial distribution of meridional, circumferential, and absolute velocity 0.142 s behind the upstream stator

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Fig. 16

Visualization of near-surface flow over the upstream stator hub showing the pressure side branch of the horseshoe vortex running through the apow optimized hub groove

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Fig. 18

Iso-levels of total pressure loss coefficient predicted with an axisymmetric hub, 0.142 s downstream of the rotor exit

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Fig. 19

Iso-levels of total pressure loss coefficient predicted with a contoured hub, 0.142 s downstream of the rotor exit

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Fig. 20

Radial distribution of mass-averaged total pressure loss coefficient 0.142 s behind the rotor airfoil row, with an axisymmetric and a contoured upstream stator hub

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Fig. 21

1.5 stage turbine characteristic line with flow simulations shown by dots

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Fig. 22

Predicted stage total pressure loss coefficient with an axisymmetric and a contoured upstream stator hub at design and off-design

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Fig. 23

Predicted stage isentropic efficiency with an axisymmetric and a contoured turbine stator hub at design and off-design

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