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Research Papers

On the Heat Transfer and Flow Structures’ Characteristics of the Turbine Blade Tip Underside With Dirt Purge Holes at Different Locations by Using Topological Analysis

[+] Author and Article Information
Lei Luo

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: leiluo@hit.edu.cn

Zhiqi Zhao

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: 494334270@qq.com

Xiaoxu Kan

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: kanxiaoxu@163.com

Dandan Qiu

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: qiu_ddan@163.com

Songtao Wang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: 736899318@qq.com

Zhongqi Wang

School of Energy Science and Engineering,
Harbin Institute of Technology,
Harbin 150001, China
e-mail: wangzhongqi@hit.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 29, 2018; final manuscript received January 16, 2019; published online February 21, 2019. Assoc. Editor: David G. Bogard.

J. Turbomach 141(7), 071004 (Feb 21, 2019) (18 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1140; doi: 10.1115/1.4042654 History: Received June 29, 2018; Accepted January 16, 2019

This paper numerically investigated the impact of the holes and their location on the flow and tip internal heat transfer in a U-bend channel (aspect ratio = 1:2), which is applicable to the cooling passage with dirt purge holes in the mid-chord region of a typical gas turbine blade. Six different tip ejection configurations are calculated at Reynolds numbers from 25,000 to 200,000. The detailed three-dimensional flow and heat transfer over the tip wall are presented, and the overall thermal performances are evaluated. The topological methodology, which is first applied to the flow analysis in an internal cooling passage of the blade, is used to explore the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement on the tip wall. This study concludes that the production of the counter-rotating vortex pair in the bend region provides a strong shear force and then increases the local heat transfer. The side-mounted single hole and center-mounted double holes can further enhance tip heat transfer, which is attributed to the enhanced shear effect and disturbed low-energy fluid. The overall thermal performance of the optimum hole location is a factor of 1.13 higher than that of the smooth tip. However, if double holes are placed on the upstream of a tip wall, the tip surface cannot be well protected. The results of this study are useful for understanding the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement in a realistic gas turbine blade and for efficient designing of blade tips for engine service.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Photo of the blade tip with the material loss region: (a) blade tip erosion and cracking [2] and (b) the squealer blade tip after unspecified hot exposure time in service [3]

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Fig. 2

GE E3 first stage HPT rotor blade tip cooling design [4]

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Fig. 3

A typical serpentine passage inside the turbine blade

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Fig. 4

A schematic picture of the internal geometrical model for a U-bend channel

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Fig. 5

Five U-bend channel tips with different double holes arrangement

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Fig. 6

Cut-plane meshes used for Case 3 in this study

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Fig. 7

Comparison of the area-average Nusselt number on the tip wall for different turbulence models at Re = 440,000

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Fig. 8

Comparison of Nusselt number distributions on the tip wall between the experiments and the CFD predictions (left: experiments [10]; right: calculations). (a) Re = 200,000; (b) Re = 310,000; and (c) Re = 440,000.

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Fig. 9

Classification of critical points [31]

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Fig. 10

Flow and heat transfer characteristics for a smooth-tip U-bend channel at Re = 100,000. (a) Nusselt contours on the tip wall, pressure-colored, and TKE-colored 2D streamlines on a constant x plane and z plane; (b) velocity-colored Q invariant, surface high shear stress area, and limiting streamlines on the tip wall; (c) topological structures and limiting streamlines on the tip wall; and (d) pressure and velocity distributions with a distance of 0.5 mm from the tip wall.

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Fig. 11

Schematic diagram of tip wall division

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Fig. 12

Comparison of Nu contours on the tip wall, 2D streamlines on a constant x plane and z plane at Re = 100,000. (a) Single-hole tip wall and (b) double-hole tip wall.

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Fig. 13

Comparison of the velocity-colored Q invariant, surface high shear stress region, and limiting streamlines on the tip wall at Re = 100,000. (a) Single-hole tip wall and (b) double-hole tip wall.

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Fig. 14

Comparison of topological structures and limiting streamlines on the tip wall at Re = 100,000. (a) Single-hole tip wall and (b) double-hole tip wall.

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Fig. 15

Comparison of the pressure and velocity distributions with a distance of 0.5 mm from the tip wall at Re = 100,000. (a) Single-hole tip wall and (b) double-hole tip wall.

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Fig. 16

Comparison of velocity-colored Q invariant, surface high shear stress region, limiting streamlines on the tip wall, and 2D streamlines on a constant x plane and z plane at Re = 100,000. (a) Case 1, (b) Case 2, (c) Case 3, and (d) Case 4.

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Fig. 17

Comparison of the limiting streamline, velocity, and pressure contour on the tip wall between the baseline, Case 1, Case 2, Case 3, Case 4, and Case 5 at Re = 100,000. (a) Baseline, (b) Case 1, (c) Case 2, (d) Case 3, (e) Case 4, and (f) Case 5.

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Fig. 18

Topological structures for double holes placed on the middle tip wall at Re = 100,000

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Fig. 19

Nusselt contours on the tip wall among the baseline, Case 1, Case 2, Case 3, Case 4, and Case 5 at Re = 100,000

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Fig. 20

Comparison of dimensionless temperature distribution above 1.05 among the baseline, Case 1, Case 2, Case 3, Case 4, and Case 5 at Re = 100,000

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Fig. 21

Heat transfer and pressure drop of the smooth-tip channel and the single/double-hole tip channel with the Re numbers ranging from 25,000 to 200,000

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Fig. 22

Normalized Nusselt number and the friction factor of the smooth-tip channel and the single/double-hole tip channel with the Re numbers ranging from 25,000 to 200,000

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Fig. 23

Comparison of Reynolds analogy performance and thermal performance of the smooth-tip channel and the single/double-hole tip channel with the Re numbers ranging from 25,000 to 200,000

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Fig. 24

Performance comparison with other structures in literatures

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