Lateral, posterolateral, posterior, and end plate bulges in the intervertebral disks of 14 fresh human cadaver lumbar motion segments were measured. Loads were applied in compression of up to 800 N; and in right lateral bending, extension, flexion, and torsion of up to 12 Nm. Mean disk bulges up to 2.7 mm were found. Disk bulges differed little after fluid injection or after posterior element removal.

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