This paper presents a biomechanical evaluation of whiplash injury potential during the initial extension motion of the head in a rear-end collision. A four-segment dynamic model is developed in the sagittal plane for the analysis. The model response is validated using the existing experimental data and is shown to simulate the “S-shape” kinematics of the cervical spine and the resulting dynamics observed in human and cadaver experiments. The model is then used to evaluate the effects of parameters such as collision severity, head/headrest separation, and the initial head orientation in the sagittal plane on the “S-shape” kinematics of the cervical spine and the resulting neck loads. It is shown, for example, that the cervical spine forms an “S-shape” for a range of change in speeds and that at lower and higher speeds changes the spine does not form the “S-shape.” Furthermore, it is shown that the “S-shape” formation also depends on the head to headrest separation distance.
A Biomechanical Evaluation of Whiplash Using a Multi-Body Dynamic Model
Contributed by the Bioengineering Division for publication in the JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Manuscript received December 2001; revised manuscript received October 2002. Associate Editor: M. G. Pandy.
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Garcia , T., and Ravani, B. (April 9, 2003). "A Biomechanical Evaluation of Whiplash Using a Multi-Body Dynamic Model ." ASME. J Biomech Eng. April 2003; 125(2): 254–265. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.1556856
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