Vibration Assisted Machining: Theory, Modelling and Applications
3. Vibration System Design and Implementation
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According to operating frequency, vibration devices can be divided into two groups: resonant mode systems and nonresonant mode systems. For a resonant system, a sonotrode (also called a horn or a concentrator) vibrates at its natural frequency, transferring, and amplifying a given vibration from a vibration source, which is usually a magnetostrictive or piezoelectric transducer. It can achieve higher operating frequency and greater energy efficiency compared with nonresonant systems. However, its vibration trajectory cannot be controlled precisely owing to the nature of resonant vibrations and the phase lag between excitation and the mechanical response. A nonresonant vibration device applies forced...