For the increasing well plugging in oilfield development, a new unplugging technology is presented in this paper for the downhole plugging by using high voltage pulse wave. Based on the mechanism analysis, the circuit resistance model and the empirical calculation formula of the pressure shock wave are obtained, and the influence of the same current waveform on the pressure shock wave generated by the wire explosion is preliminarily studied in laboratory experiments under different energy conditions. A corresponding unplugging evaluation test device was designed to simulate the approximate downhole reservoir conditions in the places where the shock wave occurs to test the approximate downhole stress conditions of the core, and to test the permeability changes after different shock waves acted on the core. The results show that the peak value of the pressure shock wave is proportional to the effect of well unplugging, which verifies the feasibility of the unplugging and increasing permeability technology of the electric explosion-controlled shock wave. This technology can quickly dredge the oil seepage channel, increase well permeability, thus increasing the well productivity, which has a broad application prospect and important practical significance.