Chemical kinetic mechanism plays a vital role in the deep learning of reacting flow in practical combustors, which can help obtain many details of the combustion process. In this paper, a surrogate model and a skeletal mechanism for an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel were developed for further investigations of the combustion performance in hypersonic vehicles: (1) The surrogate model consists of 81.3 mol% decalin and 18.7 mol% n-dodecane, which were determined by both the composition distributions and key properties of the target endothermic hydrocarbon fuel. (2) A skeletal kinetic mechanism only containing 56 species and 283 reactions was developed by the method of “core mechanism + sub mechanism”. This mechanism can be conveniently applied to the simulation of practical combustors for its affordable scale. (3) Accuracies of the surrogate model and the mechanism were systematically validated by the various properties of the target fuel under pressures of 1–20atm, temperatures of 400–1250 K, and equivalence ratios of 0.5–1.5. The overall errors for the ignition and combustion properties are no more than 0.4 and 0.1, respectively. (4) Laminar flame speeds of the target fuel and the surrogate model fuel were also measured for the validations. Results show that both the surrogate model and the mechanism can well predict the properties of the target fuel. The mechanism developed in this work is valuable to the further design and optimization of the propulsion systems.