In dealing with this problem, the cause of stress must be considered, and whether the stress remains constant, decreases, or increases as yield or creep occurs as a result of high stress. A qualitative analysis of the stress due to a maintained temperature differential in a flat bar is given for both free and restrained bar, and a comparison with the cases of a flat plate and a thick pipe. Practical cases are reviewed, including a pipe heated from the inside, heater tubes with internal pressure and high heat inputs, stresses set up by localized heating when welding a corrosion liner in a vessel, differential expansion due to noncompatible welds, vapor barriers through an insulation wall, and the temperature-transition skirt for hot vessels.

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