Aircraft exhaust contains nonvolatile (soot) particulate matter (PM), trace gas pollutants, and volatile PM precursor material. Nonvolatile soot particles are predominantly present at the engine exit plane, but volatile PM precursors form new particles or add mass to the existing ones as the exhaust is diluted and cooled. Accurately characterizing the volatile PM mass, number, and size distribution is challenging due to this evolving nature and the impact of local ambient conditions on the gas-to-particle conversion processes. To accurately and consistently measure the aircraft PM emissions, a dilution and aging sampling system that can condense volatile precursors to particle phase to simulate the atmospheric evolution of aircraft engine exhaust has been developed. In this paper, a field demonstration of its operation is described. The dilution/aging probe system was tested using both a combustor rig and on-wing CFM56-7 engines. During the combustor rig testing at NASA Glenn Research Center, the dilution/aging probe supported formation of both nucleation/growth mode particles and soot coatings. The results showed that by increasing residence time, the nucleation particles become larger in size, increase in total mass, and decrease in number. During the on-wing CFM56-7 engine testing at Chicago Midway Airport, the dilution/aging probe was able to form soot coatings along with nucleation mode particles, unlike conventional 1-m probe engine measurements. The number concentration of nucleation particles depended on the sample fraction and relative humidity of the dilution air. The performance of the instrument is analyzed and explained using computational microphysics simulations.
Measurement of Volatile Particulate Matter Emissions From Aircraft Engines Using a Simulated Plume Aging System
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Peck, J., Timko, M. T., Yu, Z., Wong, H., Herndon, S. C., Yelvington, P. E., Miake-Lye, R. C., Wey, C., Winstead, E. L., Ziemba, L. D., and Anderson, B. E. (April 12, 2012). "Measurement of Volatile Particulate Matter Emissions From Aircraft Engines Using a Simulated Plume Aging System." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. June 2012; 134(6): 061503. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4005988
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