In modern aircraft engines, reduced operating clearances between rotating blade tips and the surrounding casing increase the risk of blade/casing structural contacts, which may lead to high blade vibration levels. Therefore, structural contacts must now be accounted for as early as in the engine design stage. As the vibrations resulting from contact are intrinsically nonlinear, direct optimization of blade shapes based on vibration simulation is not realistic in an industrial context. A recent study on a blade featuring significantly lower vibration levels following contact event identified a potential criterion to estimate a blade sensitivity to contact interactions. This criterion is based on the notion of dynamic clearance, a quantity describing the evolution of the blade/casing clearance as the blade vibrates along one of its free-vibration modes. This paper presents an optimization procedure, which minimizes the dynamic clearance as a first step toward the integration of structural criteria in blade design. A dedicated blade geometry parameterization is introduced to allow for an efficient optimization of the blade shape. The optimization procedure is applied to the three-dimensional (3D) properties of two different blades. In both cases, initial and optimized blades are compared by means of an in-house numerical tool dedicated to the simulation of structural contact events with a surrounding casing. The simulations focus on rubbing phenomena, involving the vibration of a single blade. Simulation results show a significant reduction of vibration levels following contact interactions for the optimized blades. Critical speeds related to the mode on which the dynamic clearance is computed are successfully eliminated by the blade shape optimization. For the investigated blade geometries, backward sweep and backward lean angles are associated with reduced contact interactions compared to forward sweep and forward lean angles.
Blackbox Optimization for Aircraft Engine Blades With Contact Interfaces
Manuscript received June 13, 2018; final manuscript received February 5, 2019; published online February 25, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Philip Bonello.
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Lainé, J., Piollet, E., Nyssen, F., and Batailly, A. (February 25, 2019). "Blackbox Optimization for Aircraft Engine Blades With Contact Interfaces." ASME. J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power. June 2019; 141(6): 061016. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4042808
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