The balance piston seal in multiple-stage centrifugal compressors and axial turbines sustains the largest pressure drop through the machines and therefore plays an important role in successful full load operation at high rotational speed. This is especially true for power dense turbomachines in supercritical CO2 power cycles that generate or expend higher fluid pressures (above the critical value 7.3 MPa) and density (close to water 1000 kg/m3), because the fluid forces generated by the balance piston seals are directly proportional to the fluid density and the pressure drop across the seal. This paper presents a comprehensive assessment and comparison on the leakage and rotordynamic performance of three types of annular gas seals for application in a 14 MW supercritical CO2 turbine. These three seals represent the main seal types used in high-speed rotating machines at the balance piston location in efforts to limit internal leakage flow and achieve rotordynamic stability, including a labyrinth seal (LABY), a fully partitioned pocket damper seal (FPDS), and a hole-pattern damper seal (HPS). These three seals were designed to have the same sealing clearance and similar axial lengths. To enhance the seal net damping capability at high inlet preswirl condition, a straight swirl brake was also designed and employed at seal entrance for each type seal to reduce the seal inlet preswirl velocity. Numerical results of leakage flow rates, rotordynamic force coefficients, cavity dynamic pressure, and swirl velocity developments were analyzed and compared for three seal designs at high positive inlet preswirl (in the direction of shaft rotation), using a proposed transient computational fluid dynamic (CFD)-based perturbation method based on the multiple-frequency elliptical-orbit rotor whirling model and the mesh deformation technique. To take into account of real gas effect with high accuracy, a table look-up procedure based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology reference fluid properties database was implemented, using an in-house code, for the fluid properties of CO2 in both supercritical and subcritical conditions. Results show that the inlet swirl brake can significantly reduce the preswirl velocity at seal entrance, lowering the effective damping crossover frequency (or even = 0) to maximize the full operational frequency range of the machines. In stability analysis phase of a MW-scale supercritical CO2 turbine/compressor, the seal stiffness effects on the rotor mode shape must be evaluated carefully, where the seal stiffness is sufficiently large (comparable to the bearing stiffness). From a rotordynamic viewpoint, the HPS seal with entrance swirl brake is a better seal concept for the balance piston seal in supercritical CO2 turbomachinery, which possesses the largest positive effective damping throughout the entire subsynchronous frequency range.