Abstract

Recuperators with design temperatures at and above 800 °C can further increase the thermal efficiency of supercritical CO2 power cycles by enabling higher turbine exhaust temperatures. Mar-M247 is a well-suited nickel-based superalloy for high temperature service due to its high creep strength that prevents excessive material thickness being required for pressure containment. Additive manufacturing using a high-speed laser-directed energy deposition (L-DED) process presents a promising solution, with build trials demonstrating the ability to produce nonconventional flow channels for enhanced heat transfer. A design process is presented that includes aerothermal and mechanical evaluation to maximize performance within the constraints of the manufacturing process. A 2-D heat transfer network and pressure drop code allows prediction of flow distribution and its effect on overall thermal performance. Established literature correlations, along with CFD simulation, inform the prediction of heat transfer coefficients and friction factors for the flowpaths and enhancement features in the heat exchanger core. Mechanical evaluation using finite element analysis (FEA) modeling with the intent of the ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII, Div. 2 assesses the operational safety of the design. The detailed design features annular finned passages that take advantage of helical flow paths to distribute the flow from separated headers to shared heat transfer surfaces. Performance predictions for the recuperator at a 50 kW scale provide insights into the feasibility of the additively manufactured (AM) process to produce recuperators on a commercial scale that extend existing operating envelopes.

References

1.
U.S. Department of Energy, Advanced Research Projects Agency
,
2018
, “High Intensity Thermal Exchanger Through Materials and Manufacturing Processes (HITEMMP),” DE-FOA-0001970, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
2.
Moore
,
J.
,
2019
, “Development of a High-Efficiency Hot Gas Turbo-expander and Low-Cost Heat Exchangers for Optimized CSP Supercritical CO2 Operation,” Final Report for DE-EE0005804, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, Report No.
DOE-SWRI-05804
.https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1560368
3.
Allam
,
J.
,
Martin
,
S.
,
Forrest
,
B.
,
Fetvedt
,
J.
,
Lu
,
X.
,
Freed
,
D.
,
Brown
,
G. W.
, Jr.
,
Sasaki
,
T.
,
Itoh
,
M.
, and
Manning
,
J.
,
2016
, “
Demonstration of the Allam Cycle: An Update on the Development Status of a High Efficiency Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Power Process Employing Full Carbon Capture
,”
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies
, GHGT-13, Lausanne, Switzerland, Nov. 14–18, pp.
5948
5966
.10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1731
4.
Weiland
,
N. T.
, and
White
,
C. W.
,
2019
, “Performance and Cost Assessment of a Natural Gas-Fueled Direct sCO2 Power Plant,” NETL-PUB-22274, March 15, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA.
5.
Rasouli
,
E.
,
Montgomery
,
C.
,
Stevens
,
M.
,
Rollett
,
A. D.
,
Subedi
,
S.
,
Mande
,
C. W.
, and
Narayanan
,
V.
,
2018
, “
Design and Performance Characterization of an Additively Manufactured Primary Heat Exchanger for sCO2 Waste Heat Recovery Cycles
,”
The 6th International Supercritical CO2 Power Cycles Symposium
, Pittsburgh, PA, Mar. 27–29.https://wcec.ucdavis.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2018/04/Design-and-Performance-Characterization-of-an-Additively-Manufactured-Primary-Heat-Exchanger-for-sCO2-Waste-Heat-Recovery-Cycles.pdf
6.
Bernardin
,
J. D.
,
Ferguson
,
K.
, and
Sattler
,
D.
, “
The Testing and Model Validation of an Additively Manufactured Twisted Tube Heat Exchanger
,”
ASME
Paper No. HT2019-3500.10.1115/HT2019-3500
7.
Tang
,
T. L. E.
,
Xia
,
S.
,
Rop
,
P.
,
de Wispelaere
,
S.
,
Subramanian
,
R.
, and
Koos
,
B.
, “
Multi-Physics Optimization for Thermal-Flow Problems Applied to Additively Manufactured Heat Exchangers
,”
ASME
Paper No. GT2021-60336.10.1115/GT2021-60336
8.
International Organization for Standardization
,
2015
, “Additive Manufacturing - General Principles - Terminology,” ISO/ASTM 52900:2015, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland.
9.
Lemmon
,
E. W.
,
Bell
,
I. H.
,
Huber
,
M. L.
, and
McLinden
,
M. O.
,
2018
, NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 10.0, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, Gaithersburg, MD.
10.
Incropera
,
F. P.
, and
DeWitt
,
D. P.
,
2001
,
Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer
, 5th ed.,
Wiley
,
New York
.
11.
Stimpson
,
C. K.
,
Snyder
,
J. C.
,
Thole
,
K. A.
, and
Mongillo
,
D.
,
2017
, “
Scaling Roughness Effects on Pressure Loss and Heat Transfer of Additively Manufactured Channels
,”
ASME J. Turbomach
,
139
(
2
), p. 021003.10.1115/1.4034555
12.
Norris
,
R. H.
,
1970
, “
Some Simple Approximate Heat-Transfer Correlations for Turbulent Flow in Ducts With Rough Surfaces
,”
Augmentation of Convective Heat and Mass Transfer
,
Bergles
A. E.
, and
Webb
,
R. L.
, eds.,
ASME
,
New York
, pp.
16
26
.
13.
Wang
,
Q.
,
Lin
,
M.
,
Zeng
,
M.
, and
Tian
,
L.
,
2008
, “
Investigation of Turbulent Flow and Heat Transfer in Periodic Wavy Channel of Internally Finned Tube With Blocked Core Tube
,”
ASME J. Heat Transfer
,
130
(
6
), p.
061801
.10.1115/1.2891219
14.
Kirsch
,
K. L.
, and
Thole
,
K. A.
,
2017
, “
Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss Measurements in Additively Manufactured Wavy Channels
,”
ASME J. Turbomach
,
139
(
1
), p. 011007.10.1115/1.4034342
15.
ANSYS
, ANSYS® CFX, Release 19.2, Ansys, Canonsburg, PA.
16.
Kakac
,
S.
, and
Liu
,
H.
,
2002
,
Heat Exchangers: Selection, Rating, and Thermal Design
, 2nd ed.,
CRC Press
,
Boca Raton, FL
.
17.
ASME
,
2013
,
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII-Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels, Division 2-Alternative Rules
,
ASME
,
New York
.
18.
ASME,
2013
,
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section II-Materials, Part D-Alternative Rules
,
ASME
,
New York
.
19.
Kvapilova
,
M.
,
Dvorak
,
J.
,
Kral
,
P.
,
Hrbacek
,
K.
, and
Sklenicka
,
V.
,
2019
, “
Creep Behaviour and Life Assessment of a Cast Nick – Base Superalloy MAR-M247
,”
High Temp. Mater. Processes
,
38
(
2019
), pp.
590
600
.10.1515/htmp-2019-0006
20.
Kaufman
,
M.
,
1984
, “
Properties of Cast Mar-M-247 for Turbine Blisk Applications
,”
Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Superalloys
, Champion, PA, Oct. 7–11, pp.
43
52
.https://www.tms.org/superalloys/10.7449/1984/Superalloys_1984_43_52.pdf
21.
NORSOK,
1997
, “NORSOK Standard R-001: Mechanical Equipment,”
Standards Norway,
Standard No. 5.1.5.
22.
Kattus
,
J. R.
,
1999
, “
Mar-M-247
,”
Aerospace Structural Materials Handbook
, 39.1 ed.,
Purdue University
, West Lafayette, IN.
You do not currently have access to this content.