A study has been conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center to investigate the mechanism that causes free-stream turbulence to increase heat transfer in the stagnation region of turbine vanes and blades. The work was conducted in a wind tunnel at atmospheric conditions to facilitate measurements of turbulence and heat transfer. The model size was scaled up to simulate Reynolds numbers (based on leading edge diameter) that are to be expected on a turbine blade leading edge. Reynolds numbers from 13,000 to 177,000 were run in the present tests. Spanwise averaged heat transfer measurements with high and low turbulence have been made with “rough” and smooth surface stagnation regions. Results of these measurements show that, at the Reynolds numbers tested, the boundary layer remained laminar in character even in the presence of free-stream turbulence. If roughness was added the boundary layer became transitional as evidenced by the heat transfer increase with increasing distance from the stagnation line. Hot-wire measurements near the stagnation region downstream of an array of parallel wires has shown that vorticity in the form of mean velocity gradients is amplified as flow approaches the stagnation region. Finally smoke wire flow visualization and liquid crystal surface heat transfer visualization were combined to show that, in the wake of an array of parallel wires, heat transfer was a minimum in the wire wakes where the fluctuating component of velocity (local turbulence) was the highest. Heat transfer was found to be the highest between pairs of vortices where the induced velocity was toward the cylinder surface.
A Study of the Relationship Between Free-Stream Turbulence and Stagnation Region Heat Transfer
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VanFossen, G. J., Jr., and Simoneau, R. J. (February 1, 1987). "A Study of the Relationship Between Free-Stream Turbulence and Stagnation Region Heat Transfer." ASME. J. Heat Transfer. February 1987; 109(1): 10–15. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3248028
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