Secondary flow patterns at the exit of a 180 deg bend (tube inside diameter d = 1.99 cm, radius of curvature Rc = 10.85 cm) are presented to illustrate the combined effects of centrifugal and buoyancy forces in hydrodynamically and thermally developing entrance region of an isothermally heated curved pipe with both parabolic and turbulent entrance velocity profiles. Three cases of upward, horizontal, and downward-curved pipe flows are studied for constant wall temperatures Tw=55–91°C, Dean number range K=22–1209 and ReRa=1.00×106–8.86×107. The flow visualization was realized by the smoke injection method. The secondary flow patterns shown are useful for future comparison with numerical predictions and confirming theoretical models. The results can be used to assess qualitatively the limit of the applicability of the existing correlation equations for laminar forced convection in isothermally heated curved pipes without buoyancy effects.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.