Three-dimensional weld nugget growths for different welding currents, electrode tip shapes, and thickness ratios of workpieces are determined. By providing an effective model to estimate the heat generation at the faying surface between workpieces and taking into account the phase change due to melting, results show that the calculated weld nugget growth, nugget thickness, and shape of the nugget agree well with experimental data. Heat generation at the faying surface in the early stage of welding and joule heating at long weld times dominate the nugget growth. Consideration of radial heat loss is necessary at longer weld times and higher welding currents.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.