Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has been broadly applied to the fabrication of metallic materials. However, current approaches consume either high energy or large investment that considerably elevates their entry threshold. An economic extrusion-based AM method followed by debinding and sintering could efficiently produce the metal parts with relatively low cost and high material utilization. However, an in-depth analysis of the fatigue performance of the component built by such a technology has been little documented so far. Herein, the 316L stainless steel was fabricated throughout the printing-debinding-sintering (PDS) pathway and its fatigue properties were comprehensively assessed. Tensile and flexural fatigue tests were conducted to reveal the fatigue strength and fractural behaviors under different loading conditions, while the fatigue crack growth (FCG) test was performed to quantify the crack propagation. The results indicated the number of 105 cycles can be reached for the tensile specimens under the fatigue loading of 120 MPa, whereas 1.37 × 105 cycles were endured by the flexural specimens under 150 MPa. The fractural morphology indicated an adverse impact of the pore-induced voids on the tensile fatigue crack propagation, but such a drawback could be alleviated in the flexural loading condition. The FCG test unveiled the crack growth rate with the number of cycles and determined the material-related coefficients in the fatigue crack growth model. The research findings provided valuable insights into the effects of the PDS process and microstructures on the resultant fatigue properties of the metal component.