As the micromanipulator of surgical robots works in a narrow space, it is difficult to install any position sensors at the end, so the position control and position detection cannot be accurately performed. A position estimator based on the parameter autonomous selection model is proposed to estimate the end position indirectly. First, a single joint principle prototype and a position estimator model are established through the 4DOF driving scheme of the micromanipulator and the cable-driven model. Second, the proposed parameter change model is combined with the parameter selection method to form a parameter autonomous selection model. Finally, a position estimator based on the parameter autonomous selection model is established. The experimental results show the maximum estimation error of the position estimator is 0.1928 deg. Compared with other position estimation methods, the position estimator proposed in this paper has higher accuracy and better robustness, which lays a foundation for the full closed-loop control of micromanipulator position.