In vitro experimental studies are of great importance in human joint biomechanics. Data from in vitro tests allow the study of kinematics, kinetostatics, and dynamics of human joints. Understanding the joint behavior is required for prosthesis and orthosis design as well as for model validation.

Several in vitro test rigs are reported in the literature. These devices can be divided into two groups: the human joint simulators, which aim at reproducing the behavior of the joint in a physiological way (such as the Oxford Knee Rig [1]) and the robot-based systems [2], which aim at reproducing the loading conditions at the joint by a robot. Most devices currently in use are either specifically designed for a prescribed set of tests, thus limiting possible applications, or obtained by adapting industrial machines to biomechanics, which results in a poor fit to the intended application, e.g., limiting the flexion...

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