Estimated rates of acute pacemaker lead perforations range between 0.5% and 2%, thus establishing significant clinical and device design considerations, i.e., given that over 250,000 patients are annually implanted with permanent pacing systems [1,2]. The most common locations for such lead perforations are within the thinly walled right atrium, these in turn may result in cardiac effusion which can be a significant clinical issue. Yet, to date, little research has been reported relative to the biomechanical properties of these atrial tissues. Therefore, we performed the described studies to better define the underlying relationships between perforation forces of the right atrial appendage (RAA) and the relative surface areas of the applied penetrating devices (e.g., a lead or fixation mechanism). In the future, such information can then be utilized to optimize device designs for devices to be placed within the right atrium.

For this study, the RAA was...

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