The vestibular labyrinth is a collection of sensory organs within the inner ear that encode head movements and relay this information to the central nervous system. This system detects 3D head rotations using a set of three mutually orthogonal semicircular canals (SCCs) in each ear. The SCCs are arranged in bilateral coplanar pairs: left anterior–right posterior (LARP), right anterior–left posterior (RALP), and left horizontal–right horizontal (LHRH). During head rotations, SCCs modulate firing rates of vestibular afferent neurons innervating each SCC about their spontaneous rates to encode head angular velocity. This signal is used as an input to drive the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR), a compensatory 3D eye movement that maintains stable vision.

Individuals with profound bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) due to inner ear damage suffer loss in visual acuity during head movements, postural instability, and chronic disequilibrium. While some BVH patients learn to use other senses (e.g., the visual and...

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