Medical devices are used routinely throughout the world. Aside from various considerations on chemical and biological compatibilities, how these devices mechanically interact with human bodies remains as an important research topic. Medical devices are usually made of inert metals, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials. And can be characterized and manufactured precisely. The challenge emerges as the devices are integrated with human bodies, which are made of complex hard and soft biological tissues and cannot be tested in vivo. Traditionally, adult cadaveric subjects were used to measure force and displacement responses of a device-body system. However, regional stress and strain responses of a human body are still hard to measure, especially for soft tissues such as cartilage, muscle, ligament, and organs. As such, finite element (FE) human body models were developed, to aid in the description of body responses for various medical devices or surgical processes, such as vertebral instrumentation e.g.,...

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