Robotic minimally invasive surgery (R-MIS) has gained in popularity due to its advantages of improving the accuracy and dexterity of surgical interventions while minimizing trauma to the patient. However, because of the loss of direct contact with the surgical site, the surgeon cannot perceive tactile information, which may adversely affect surgical efficiency and/or efficacy. The lack of haptic feedback is seen as a limiting factor in existing R-MIS technology [1].

To solve this problem, researchers have incorporated force sensors on the surgical tools to measure the tool–tissue interaction forces [2,3] (Figs. 1 and 2) and reproduce these at the surgeon console. However, the employment of force sensors leads to other problems limiting their practical application. For example, they can make the tools bulky, and the harsh conditions required to sterilize surgical tools may damage the sensors [4].

The objective of this...

You do not currently have access to this content.