Abstract

Synthetic, self-oscillating models of the human vocal folds are used to study the complex and inter-related flow, structure, and acoustical aspects of voice production. The vocal folds typically collide during each cycle, thereby creating a brief period of glottal closure that has important implications for flow, acoustic, and motion-related outcomes. Many previous synthetic models, however, have been limited by incomplete glottal closure during vibration. In this study, a low-fidelity, two-dimensional, multilayer finite element model of vocal fold flow-induced vibration was coupled with a custom genetic algorithm optimization code to determine geometric and material characteristics that would be expected to yield physiologically-realistic frequency and closed quotient values. The optimization process yielded computational models that vibrated with favorable frequency and closed quotient characteristics. A tradeoff was observed between frequency and closed quotient. A synthetic, self-oscillating vocal fold model with geometric and material properties informed by the simulation outcomes was fabricated and tested for onset pressure, oscillation frequency, and closed quotient. The synthetic model successfully vibrated at a realistic frequency and exhibited a nonzero closed quotient. The methodology described in this study provides potential direction for fabricating synthetic models using isotropic silicone materials that can be designed to vibrate with physiologically-realistic frequencies and closed quotient values. The results also show the potential for a low-fidelity model optimization approach to be used to tune synthetic vocal fold model characteristics for specific vibratory outcomes.

References

1.
Henrich
,
N.
,
d'Alessandro
,
C.
,
Doval
,
B.
, and
Castellengo
,
M.
,
2005
, “
Glottal Open Quotient in Singing: Measurements and Correlation With Laryngeal Mechanisms, Vocal Intensity, and Fundamental Frequency
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
117
(
3
), pp.
1417
1430
.10.1121/1.1850031
2.
Lohscheller
,
J.
,
Švec
,
J. G.
, and
Döllinger
,
M.
,
2013
, “
Vocal Fold Vibration Amplitude, Open Quotient, Speed Quotient and Their Variability Along Glottal Length: Kymographic Data From Normal Subjects
,”
Logop. Phoniatr. Voco.
,
38
(
4
), pp.
182
192
.10.3109/14015439.2012.731083
3.
Zhang
,
Z.
,
2016
, “
Cause-Effect Relationship Between Vocal Fold Physiology and Voice Production in a Three-Dimensional Phonation Model
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
139
(
4
), pp.
1493
1507
.10.1121/1.4944754
4.
Holmberg
,
E. B.
,
Hillman
,
R. E.
, and
Perkell
,
J. S.
,
1989
, “
Glottal Airflow and Transglottal Air Pressure measure1ments for Male and Female Speakers in Low, Normal, and High Pitch
,”
J. Voice
,
3
(
4
), pp.
294
305
.10.1016/S0892-1997(89)80051-7
5.
Baken
,
R. J.
, and
Orlikoff
,
R. F.
,
2000
,
Clinical Measurements of Speech and Voice
,
Singular Publishing Group
,
Delmar
, pp.
409
411
.
6.
Hodge
,
F. S.
,
Colton
,
R. H.
, and
Kelley
,
R. T.
,
2001
, “
Vocal Intensity Characteristics in Normal and Elderly Speakers
,”
J. Voice
,
15
(
4
), pp.
503
511
.10.1016/S0892-1997(01)00050-9
7.
Murray
,
P. R.
, and
Thomson
,
S. L.
,
2011
, “
Synthetic, Multi-Layer, Self-Oscillating Vocal Fold Model Fabrication
,”
J. Vis. Exp.
,
58
, p.
3498
.10.3791/3498
8.
Murray
,
P. R.
, and
Thomson
,
S. L.
,
2012
, “
Vibratory Response of Synthetic, Self-Oscillating Vocal Mold Models
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
132
(
5
), pp.
3428
3438
.10.1121/1.4754551
9.
Murray
,
P. R.
,
Thomson
,
S. L.
, and
Smith
,
M. E.
,
2014
, “
A Synthetic Self-Oscillating Vocal Fold Model Platform for Studying Augmentation Injection
,”
J. Voice
,
28
(
2
), pp.
133
143
.10.1016/j.jvoice.2013.10.014
10.
Xuan
,
Y.
, and
Zhang
,
Z.
,
2014
, “
Influence of Embedded Fibers and an Epithelium Layer on the Glottal Closure Pattern in a Physical Vocal Fold Model
,”
J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res.
,
57
(
2
), pp.
416
425
.10.1044/2013_JSLHR-S-13-0068
11.
Lodermeyer
,
A.
,
Bagheri
,
E.
,
Kniesburges
,
S.
,
Näger
,
C.
,
Probst
,
J.
,
Döllinger
,
M.
, and
Becker
,
S.
,
2021
, “
The Mechanisms of Harmonic Sound Generation During Phonation: A Multi-Modal Measurement-Based Approach
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
150
(
5
), pp.
3485
3499
.10.1121/10.0006974
12.
Motie-Shirazi
,
M.
,
Zañartu
,
M.
,
Peterson
,
S. D.
,
Mehta
,
D. D.
,
Kobler
,
J. B.
,
Hillman
,
R. E.
, and
Erath
,
B. D.
,
2019
, “
Toward Development of a Vocal Fold Contact Pressure Probe: Sensor Characterization and Validation Using Synthetic Vocal Fold Models
,”
Appl. Sci.
,
2019
,
9
(
15
), p.
3002
.10.3390/app9153002
13.
Motie-Shirazi
,
M.
,
Zañartu
,
M.
,
Peterson
,
S. D.
, and
Erath
,
B. D.
,
2021
, “
Vocal Fold Dynamics in a Synthetic Self-Oscillating Model: Contact Pressure and Dissipated-Energy Dose
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am
,.
150
(
1
), pp.
478
489
.10.1121/10.0005596
14.
Taylor
,
C. J.
,
2018
, “
Internal Deformation Measurements and Optimization of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models
,” M.S. thesis,
Brigham Young University
, Provo, UT.
15.
Smith
,
S. L.
, and
Thomson
,
S. L.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Subglottic Stenosis on the Flow-Induced Vibration of a Computational Vocal Fold Model
,”
J Fluids Struct.
,
38
, pp.
77
91
.10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2012.11.010
16.
Shurtz
,
T. E.
, and
Thomson
,
S. L.
,
2013
, “
Influence of Numerical Model Decisions on the Flow-Induced Vibration of a Computational Vocal Fold Model
,”
Comput. Struct.
,
122
, pp.
44
54
.10.1016/j.compstruc.2012.10.015
17.
Latifi
,
N.
,
Heris
,
H. K.
,
Thomson
,
S. L.
,
Taher
,
R.
,
Kazemirad
,
S.
,
Sheibani
,
S.
,
Li-Jessen
,
N. Y. K.
,
Vali
,
H.
, and
Mongeau
,
L.
,
2016
, “
A Flow Perfusion Bioreactor System for Vocal Fold Tissue Engineering Applications
,”
Tissue Eng. Part C Methods
,
22
(
9
), pp.
823
838
.10.1089/ten.tec.2016.0053
18.
ADINA R&D, Inc.
,
2021
, “
ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide Volume I: ADINA
,” ADINA R&D, Inc., Watertown, MA.
19.
ADINA R&D, Inc.
,
2021
, “
ADINA Theory and Modeling Guide Volume III: CFD & FSI
,” ADINA R&D, Inc., Watertown, MA.
20.
Scherer
,
R. C.
,
Shinwari
,
D.
,
De Witt
,
K. J.
,
Zhang
,
C.
,
Kucinschi
,
B. R.
, and
Afjeh
,
A. A.
,
2001
, “
Intraglottal Pressure Profiles for a Symmetric and Oblique Glottis With a Divergence Angle of 10 Degrees
,”
J. Acoust. Soc. Am.
,
109
(
4
), pp.
1616
1630
.10.1121/1.1333420
21.
Vaterlaus
,
A. C.
,
2020
, “
Development of a 3D Computational Vocal Fold Model Optimization Tool
,” M.S. thesis,
Brigham Young University
, Provo, UT.
You do not currently have access to this content.