A finite element analysis is conducted to determine the critical impact velocities for concrete dolos. The model formulation includes deformations at the contact surface and nonlinear material properties. Two dolos orientations are considered: vertical fluke seaward and horizontal fluke seaward. In both cases, the larger units fail at lower angular impact velocities. It is also shown that doubling the concrete strength increases the impact resistance by approximately 40 percent.
Response of Dolos Concrete Armor Units to Impact Loads
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Tedesco, J. W., McGill, P. B., and McDougal, W. G. (November 1, 1991). "Response of Dolos Concrete Armor Units to Impact Loads." ASME. J. Offshore Mech. Arct. Eng. November 1991; 113(4): 286–291. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2919932
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