A high-flux solar simulator is essential for evaluating solar thermal components under controlled and adjustable flux input conditions. This study presents a newly built high-flux solar simulator composed of 19 individual units. Each unit includes a xenon short-arc lamp (each consuming up to 6 kW electricity power) coupled with a truncated ellipsoidal reflector, a cooling blower, and a power module. The power module yields a current in the range of 50–160 A. The number of lamps in use is flexible, which allows for a wide range of radiation flux (10%–100%) on the focal plane. The radiation power, peak value, flux distribution on the circular target plane, and conversion efficiency are evaluated based on a flux mapping method. The results indicate that the proposed solar simulator is capable of achieving thermal power of 23.3 kW, peak flux in excess of 1.78 MW/m2, a stagnation temperature exceeding 2360 °C, and average irradiance of 773.4 kW/m2 on the focal plane (diameter of 260 mm). The electro-thermal conversion efficiency of the simulator is 35.7%. A ray-tracing method was employed, and the simulation results were found to be in good agreement with those in the experiments. An experimental test of a volumetric ceramic receiver was conducted, and the results indicate the availability and applicability of the high-flux solar simulator when carrying out studies about solar receivers.