Hollow cylindrical bars were tested in a rolling-contact fatigue tester to determine the effects of material and outside diameter to inside diameter (OD/ID) ratios on fatigue failure mode and subsequent failure propagation. The range of applied loads with OD/ID ratios of 2.0, 1.6, 1.4, and 1.2 resulted in maximum tangential tensile stresses ranging from 165 to 655 MPa (24,000 to 95,000 psi) at the bore surface. Flexural failures of the hollow test bars occurred when this bore stress was 490 MPa (71,000 psi) or greater with AISI 52100 hollow bars and 338 MPa (49,000 psi) or greater with AISI M-50 hollow bars. Good correlation was obtained in relating the failures of these hollow bars with flexural failures of drilled balls from full-scale bearing tests published previously.
Effect of Wall Thickness and Material on Flexural Fatigue of Hollow Rolling Elements
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Bamberger, E. N., and Parker, R. J. (January 1, 1978). "Effect of Wall Thickness and Material on Flexural Fatigue of Hollow Rolling Elements." ASME. J. of Lubrication Tech. January 1978; 100(1): 39–46. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3453111
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