Understanding the heat transfer characteristics of impingement cooling of high-speed high-power gears is essential to design a reliable gearbox for a new generation of jet engines. However, experimental data on the impingement cooling of gears is limited in the literature. The experimental setup at the Institute of Thermal Turbomachinery aims at closing this gap. It includes a rotating gear instrumented with thermocouples. The measured temperatures are used to determine a spatially resolved heat transfer coefficient distribution on the gear tooth. The iterative evaluation approach applied in the postprocessing of the experimental data is validated with two reference cases. First, it is shown that the interpolation of temperature data between thermocouple locations leads to inaccurate results and would not be valid for the evaluation of the experiments, even if the number of thermocouples were increased. The iterative evaluation approach can reproduce the reference heat transfer coefficient distributions very accurately even with a low spatial resolution of temperature data. A new iterative method based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is implemented within this study. The new method generally converges faster than the existing method. The difference in required computational time is negligible in the easy to evaluate high heat transfer case, whereas a speed-up of up to three times is observed in the relatively cumbersome evaluation of the low heat transfer case.